Weinbrenner, K.-H.: , Selbsttragende Konstruktion aus Holz, Holz-Zentralblatt, Vol. No. 30 / , pp. Wagenranch Birkfeld, Strallegg, Steiermark, Austria. likes. Sports & Recreation/5(28).
Since the s, there have been attempts to build a tramway tunnel in the centre of Karlsruhe to relieve the main shopping street of trams. However, these plans always failed because of the cost of such a project. After an initial rejection at a referendum in , a modified plan was confirmed at a further referendum in At the end of the so-called "combined solution" Kombilösung for the Stadtbahn tunnel completed the planning approval process.
In December , the Karlsruhe regional council approved the details of the work. Financing and implementation is being handled by a company established for the purpose: The project will relieve the inner city of tram and car traffic.
The city will also benefit from the creation of additional capacity in the tram network. The project is still very controversial, which was also reflected in the results of the two previous referendums. The high cost and the disruption during construction are criticised in particular. The necessity of the project continues to be questioned and alternative concepts have been proposed in the form of amended alignments.
A citizens' initiative against the combined solution was launched in the summer of to require a third referendum,  but this failed in the administrative court. The first sod was turned for the construction of Stadtbahn tunnel on 21 January The first, preparatory work had already been carried out in As a result of delays in the construction of the Stadtbahn tunnel it is now expected to be commissioned in As of [update] , the tram network in Karlsruhe operates on All daily tramlines run during the day on weekdays at ten-minute intervals.
Line 8, which operates only on weekdays, runs at minute intervals. Services operate outside the city limits during the day at least at minute intervals. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Verkehrsbetriebe Karlsruhe GmbH since Trams portal Germany portal. Archived from the original pdf on Retrieved 5 April Baubeginn definitiv Ende " in German. Mehr Druck auf Auftragnehmer" in German. Geschichte des öffentlichen Nahverkehrs in Karlsruhe [ Under Current.
Stadtbahn and town tramway systems in Germany by Land and city. Augsburg Munich Nuremberg Würzburg. Ludwigshafen am Rhein Mainz. Erfurt Gera Gotha Jena Nordhausen. Urban public transport networks and systems in Germany. Berlin Hamburg Munich Nuremberg. Eberswalde Esslingen am Neckar Solingen. Retrieved from " https: CS1 German-language sources de Interlanguage link template link number Articles with German-language external links Articles containing German-language text Articles containing potentially dated statements from All articles containing potentially dated statements Commons category link is on Wikidata Coordinates on Wikidata.
Views Read Edit View history. In other projects Wikimedia Commons. Languages Deutsch Italiano Lumbaart Edit links. This page was last edited on 22 December , at There are records of a street railway running in Baltimore as early as , however the first authenticated streetcar in America, was the New York and Harlem Railroad developed by the Irish coach builder John Stephenson , in New York City which began service in the year Other American cities did not follow until the s, after which the "animal railway" became an increasingly common feature in the larger towns.
The first permanent tram line in continental Europe was opened in Paris in by Alphonse Loubat who had previously worked on American streetcar lines. The first tram in South America opened in in Santiago, Chile. The first trams in Australia opened in in Sydney.
Africa's first tram service started in Alexandria on 8 January Problems with horsecars included the fact that any given animal could only work so many hours on a given day, had to be housed, groomed, fed and cared for day in and day out, and produced prodigious amounts of manure, which the streetcar company was charged with storing and then disposing of. Since a typical horse pulled a streetcar for about a dozen miles a day and worked for four or five hours, many systems needed ten or more horses in stable for each horsecar.
Horsecars were largely replaced by electric-powered trams following the improvement of an overhead trolley system on trams for collecting electricity from overhead wires by Frank J. His spring-loaded trolley pole used a wheel to travel along the wire. In late and early , using his trolley system, Sprague installed the first successful large electric street railway system in Richmond, Virginia.
Within a year, the economy of electric power had replaced more costly horsecars in many cities. By , electric railways incorporating Sprague's equipment had been begun or planned on several continents. Horses continued to be used for light shunting well into the 20th century, and many large metropolitan lines lasted into the early 20th century. The tram made its last journey on 30 September when the Omagh to Enniskillen line closed. The "van" now lies at the Ulster Transport Museum.
A horse tram route in Polish gmina Mrozy , first built in , was reopened in The first mechanical trams were powered by steam. Generally, there were two types of steam tram. The first and most common had a small steam locomotive called a tram engine in the UK at the head of a line of one or more carriages, similar to a small train.
Steam tramways also were used on the suburban tramway lines around Milan and Padua ; the last Gamba de Legn "Peg-Leg" tramway ran on the Milan- Magenta -Castano Primo route in late The other style of steam tram had the steam engine in the body of the tram, referred to as a tram engine UK or steam dummy US.
The most notable system to adopt such trams was in Paris. French-designed steam trams also operated in Rockhampton , in the Australian state of Queensland between and Stockholm , Sweden, had a steam tram line at the island of Södermalm between and Tram engines usually had modifications to make them suitable for street running in residential areas.
The wheels, and other moving parts of the machinery, were usually enclosed for safety reasons and to make the engines quieter. Measures were often taken to prevent the engines from emitting visible smoke or steam. Usually the engines used coke rather than coal as fuel to avoid emitting smoke; condensers or superheating were used to avoid emitting visible steam.
A major drawback of this style of tram was the limited space for the engine, so that these trams were usually underpowered. Steam tram engines faded out around s to s, being replaced by electric trams. Another motive system for trams was the cable car, which was pulled along a fixed track by a moving steel cable. The power to move the cable was normally provided at a "powerhouse" site a distance away from the actual vehicle.
The London and Blackwall Railway , which opened for passengers in east London, England, in used such a system. The first practical cable car line was tested in San Francisco , in Part of its success is attributed to the development of an effective and reliable cable grip mechanism, to grab and release the moving cable without damage.
The second city to operate cable trams was Dunedin in New Zealand, from to The most extensive cable system in the US was built in Chicago , having been built in stages between and New York City developed at least seven cable car lines.
There were also two isolated cable lines in Sydney , New South Wales, Australia; the North Sydney line from to ,  and the King Street line from to In Dresden , Germany, in an elevated suspended cable car following the Eugen Langen one-railed floating tram system started operating.
Cable cars suffered from high infrastructure costs, since an expensive system of cables , pulleys , stationary engines and lengthy underground vault structures beneath the rails had to be provided.
They also required physical strength and skill to operate, and alert operators to avoid obstructions and other cable cars. The cable had to be disconnected "dropped" at designated locations to allow the cars to coast by inertia, for example when crossing another cable line. The cable would then have to be "picked up" to resume progress, the whole operation requiring precise timing to avoid damage to the cable and the grip mechanism. Breaks and frays in the cable, which occurred frequently, required the complete cessation of services over a cable route while the cable was repaired.
Due to overall wear, the entire length of cable typically several kilometres would have to be replaced on a regular schedule. After the development of reliable electrically powered trams, the costly high-maintenance cable car systems were rapidly replaced in most locations.
Cable cars remained especially effective in hilly cities, since their nondriven wheels would not lose traction as they climbed or descended a steep hill. The moving cable would physically pull the car up the hill at a steady pace, unlike a low-powered steam or horse-drawn car. Cable cars do have wheel brakes and track brakes , but the cable also helps restrain the car to going downhill at a constant speed.
Performance in steep terrain partially explains the survival of cable cars in San Francisco. The San Francisco cable cars , though significantly reduced in number, continue to perform a regular transportation function, in addition to being a well-known tourist attraction.
A single cable line also survives in Wellington , New Zealand rebuilt in as a funicular but still called the " Wellington Cable Car ". Another system, actually two separate cable lines with a shared power station in the middle, operates from the Welsh town of Llandudno up to the top of the Great Orme hill in North Wales , UK.
In the late 19th and early 20th centuries a number of systems in various parts of the world employed trams powered by gas, naphtha gas or coal gas in particular. On 29 December the Melbourne newspaper The Argus reprinted a report from the San Francisco Bulletin that Mr Noble had demonstrated a new 'motor car' for tramways 'with success'.
The tramcar 'exactly similar in size, shape, and capacity to a cable grip car' had the 'motive power' of gas 'with which the reservoir is to be charged once a day at power stations by means of a rubber hose'. The car also carried an electricity generator for 'lighting up the tram and also for driving the engine on steep grades and effecting a start'.
Comparatively little has been published about gas trams. However, research on the subject was carried out for an article in the October edition of "The Times", the historical journal of the Australian Association of Timetable Collectors, now the Australian Timetable Association.
A tram system powered by compressed natural gas was due to open in Malaysia in ,  but the news about the project appears to have dried up. The world's first electric tram line operated in Sestroretsk near Saint Petersburg , Russia, invented and tested by Fyodor Pirotsky in It was built by Werner von Siemens who contacted Pirotsky.
This was world's first commercially successful electric tram. It initially drew current from the rails, with overhead wire being installed in It was the first tram in the world in regular service that was run with electricity served by an overhead line with pantograph current collectors.
This system is still in operation in a modernised form. Earliest tram system in Canada was by John Joseph Wright , brother of the famous mining entrepreneur Whitaker Wright , in Toronto in In the US, multiple functioning experimental electric trams were exhibited at the World Cotton Centennial World's Fair in New Orleans, Louisiana , but they were not deemed good enough to replace the Lamm fireless engines then propelling the St.
Charles Avenue Streetcar in that city. The first commercial installation of an electric streetcar in the United States was built in in Cleveland, Ohio and operated for a period of one year by the East Cleveland Street Railway Company. Sprague later developed multiple unit control, first demonstrated in Chicago in , allowing multiple cars to be coupled together and operated by a single motorman. This gave rise to the modern subway train.
Following the improvement of an overhead "trolley" system on streetcars for collecting electricity from overhead wires by Sprague, electric tram systems were rapidly adopted across the world. Earlier installations proved difficult or unreliable. Siemens' line, for example, provided power through a live rail and a return rail, like a model train , limiting the voltage that could be used, and delivering electric shocks to people and animals crossing the tracks.
While this line proved quite versatile as one of the earliest fully functional electric streetcar installations, it required horse-drawn support while climbing the Niagara Escarpment and for two months of the winter when hydroelectricity was not available. It continued in service in its original form into the s.
Sidney Howe Short designed and produced the first electric motor that operated a streetcar without gears. The motor had its armature direct-connected to the streetcar 's axle for the driving force.
Sarajevo built a citywide system of electric trams in Bucharest and Belgrade  ran a regular service from The first electric tramway in Australia was a Sprague system demonstrated at the Melbourne Centennial Exhibition in Melbourne ; afterwards, this was installed as a commercial venture operating between the outer Melbourne suburb of Box Hill and the then tourist-oriented country town Doncaster from to By the s, the only full tramway system remaining in Australia was the Melbourne tram system.
However, there were also a few single lines remaining elsewhere: In recent years the Melbourne system, generally recognised as one of the largest in the world, has been considerably modernised and expanded.
The Adelaide line has also been extended to the Entertainment Centre, and work is progressing on further extensions.
A completely new system, known as G: At the time of writing, 6 April , Newcastle, New South Wales , was in the process of reintroducing trams; and work on a completely new system for Canberra was progressing rapidly. In Japan, the Kyoto Electric railroad was the first tram system, starting operation in Two rare but significant alternatives were conduit current collection , which was widely used in London, Washington, D.
The convenience and economy of electricity resulted in its rapid adoption once the technical problems of production and transmission of electricity were solved. Electric trams largely replaced animal power and other forms of motive power including cable and steam, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
There is one particular hazard associated with trams powered from a trolley pole off an overhead line. Since the tram relies on contact with the rails for the current return path, a problem arises if the tram is derailed or more usually if it halts on a section of track that has been particularly heavily sanded by a previous tram, and the tram loses electrical contact with the rails.
In this event, the underframe of the tram, by virtue of a circuit path through ancillary loads such as interior lighting , is live at the full supply voltage, typically volts. Any person stepping off the tram completed the earth return circuit and could receive a nasty electric shock. In such an event the driver was required to jump off the tram avoiding simultaneous contact with the tram and the ground and pull down the trolley pole before allowing passengers off the tram.
Unless derailed, the tram could usually be recovered by running water down the running rails from a point higher than the tram, the water providing a conducting bridge between the tram and the rails. In the s, two companies introduced catenary-free designs. As early as , Thomas Davenport , a Vermont blacksmith, had invented a battery-powered electric motor which he later patented. The following year he used it to operate a small model electric car on a short section of track four feet in diameter.
Attempts to use batteries as a source of electricity were made from the s and s, with unsuccessful trials conducted in among other places Bendigo and Adelaide in Australia, and for about 14 years as The Hague accutram of HTM in the Netherlands. The first trams in Bendigo , Australia, in , were battery-powered but within as little as three months they were replaced with horse-drawn trams.
In New York City some minor lines also used storage batteries. Then, comparatively recently, during the s, a longer battery-operated tramway line ran from Milan to Bergamo. In China there is a Nanjing battery Tram line and has been running since The Convict Tramway  was hauled by human power in the form of convicts from the Port Arthur convict settlement.
It opened in and ran for 8 km 5 miles from Oakwood to Taranna. The tramway carried passengers and freight, and ran on wooden rails.
The gauge is unknown. The date of closure is unknown, but it was certainly prior to Galveston Island Trolley in Texas operated diesel trams due to the city's hurricane-prone location, which would result in frequent damage to an electrical supply system.
Although Portland, Victoria promotes its tourist tram  as being a cable car it actually operates using a hidden diesel motor. The tram, which runs on a circular route around the town of Portland, uses dummies and salons formerly used on the extensive Melbourne cable tramway system and now beautifully restored.
Paris operated trams that were powered by compressed air using the Mekarski system. The Trieste—Opicina tramway in Trieste operates a hybrid funicular tramway system. Conventional electric trams are operated in street running and on reserved track for most of their route. However, on one steep segment of track, they are assisted by cable tractors, which push the trams uphill and act as brakes for the downhill run.
For safety, the cable tractors are always deployed on the downhill side of the tram vehicle. Similar systems were used elsewhere in the past, notably on the Queen Anne Counterbalance in Seattle and the Darling Street wharf line in Sydney.
In the midth century many tram systems were disbanded, replaced by buses, automobiles or rapid transit. The General Motors streetcar conspiracy was a case study of the decline of trams in the United States. Vehicle fabricates from the s and onwards such as Bombardier's Flexity series and Alstom Citadis are usually low-floor trams with features such as articulation and regenerative braking.
A double-ended tram has an operator's cab and controls at each end of the vehicle, which allows it to easily be driven at full speed in either direction on a continuous segment of track. Typically at the end of a run, the tram's operator will walk from one end of the tram to the other, and then commence the tram route in the other direction.
The tram is usually switched to another track by use of crossover points or Y-points. Conversely, a single-ended vehicle needs a method of turning at termini so that the operator's cab is in the front of the tram for the reverse journey.
This usually necessitates a turning loop or triangle. On the other hand, the single cab and controls and fewer door spaces make the tram lighter, increases passenger accommodation including many more seats and effects reductions in equipment, weight, first-cost, maintenance cost, and operating expense. A single-ended tram has operator's controls at only one end, and can safely be driven at speed in the forward direction but is also capable of reverse movement, typically at slower speed, using a small set of controls at the rear.
The configuration of the doors is usually asymmetrical, favouring the side expected to be closest to the street kerb and footpath. At the end of a run, the tram must be turned around via a balloon loop or some other method, to face in the opposite direction for a return trip. In addition, if overhead electrical power is fed from a trolley pole , the direction of the trolley pole must be reversed at the end of the run, to ensure that the pole is "pulled" behind or "trailing" the vehicle, to avoid 'dewiring'.
This was achieved by a member of the crew swinging the pole through degrees if there was only one pole or lowering one pole and raising the other if there were two. More commonly nowadays, a bidirectional pantograph may be used to feed power, eliminating the need for an extra procedure when reversing direction. Two single-ended trams with doors on both sides may be coupled into a semi- permanently coupled married pair or twinset , with operator's controls at each end of the combination.
Such a setup is operated as if it were a double-ended tram, except that the operator must exit one vehicle and enter the other, when reversing at the end of the run. Like articulated buses , they have increased passenger capacity. With this type, the articulation is normally suspended between carbody sections. An articulated tram may be low-floor variety or high regular floor variety.
At crush loadings this would be even higher. A double-decker tram is a tram that has two levels. Some double-decker trams have open tops.
The earliest double-deck trams were horse drawn. The first electric double-deck trams were those built for the Blackpool Tramway in , one of which survives at the National Tramway Museum. Double decker trams were commonplace in Great Britain and Dublin Ireland before most tramways were torn up in the s and s. New York City's New York Railways experimented in with a Brill double deck Hedley-Doyle stepless centre entrance car, nicknamed the "Broadway Battleship", a term that spread to other large streetcars.
Arguably the most unusual double-decker tram used to run between the isolated Western Australian outback town of Leonora and the nearby settlement of Gwalia. Many early 20th century trams used a lowered central section between the bogies trucks.
This made passenger access easier, reducing the number of steps required to reach the inside of the vehicle. These cars were frequently referred to as "drop-centres". They were a popular design in Australia and New Zealand , with at least such tramcars being built for use in Melbourne alone.
Trams built since the s have had conventional high or low floors. This satisfies requirements to provide access to disabled passengers without using expensive wheelchair lifts , while at the same time making boarding faster and easier for other passengers.
Passenger satisfaction with low-floor trams is high. Various companies have developed particular low-floor designs, varying from part-low-floor with internal steps between the low-floor section and the high-floor sections over the bogies , e.
This creates undue wear on the tracks and wheels. This configuration required a new undercarriage. The axles had to be replaced by a complicated electronic steering of the traction motors. Auxiliary devices are installed largely under the car's roof. Most low-floor trams carry the mechanical penalty of requiring bogies to be fixed and unable to pivot. A tram-train is a light-rail public transport system where trams run through from an urban tramway network to main-line railway lines which are shared with conventional trains.
This allows passengers to travel from suburban areas into city-centre destinations without having to change from a train to a tram. Tram-train operation uses vehicles such as the Flexity Link and Regio- Alstom Citadis , which are suited for use on urban tram lines and also meet the necessary indication, power, and strength requirements for operation on main-line railways.
It has been primarily developed in Germanic countries, in particular Germany and Switzerland. Karlsruhe is a notable pioneer of the tram-train.
Since the 19th century goods have been carried on rail vehicles through the streets, often near docks and steelworks, for example the Weymouth Harbour Tramway in Weymouth, Dorset. In Australia, three different "Freight Cars" operated in Melbourne between and  and the city of Kislovodsk in Russia had a freight-only tram system consisting of one line which was used exclusively to deliver bottled Narzan mineral water to the railway station.
Today, the German city of Dresden has a regular CarGoTram service, run by the world's longest tram trainsets At the turn of the 21st century, a new interest has arisen in using urban tramway systems to transport goods. The motivation now is to reduce air pollution, traffic congestion and damage to road surfaces in city centres. One recent proposal to bring cargo tramways back into wider use was the plan by City Cargo Amsterdam to reintroduce them into the city of Amsterdam.
The pilot involved two cargo trams, operating from a distribution centre and delivering to a "hub" where special electric trucks delivered the trams' small containers to their final destination. These specially built vehicles would be 30 feet 9.
With each unloading operation taking on average 10 minutes, this means that each site would be active for 40 minutes out of each hour during the morning rush hour. In early the scheme was suspended owing to the financial crisis impeding fund-raising. Many systems have retained historical trams which will often run over parts of the system for tourists and tram enthusiasts. In Melbourne, Australia, a number of the iconic W class run throughout each day in a set route which circles the Central Business District.
They are primarily for the use of tourists, although often also used by regular commuters. These mobile nurseries either carried the children around the system or delivered them to the nursery school run by transport company. Specially appointed hearse trams, or funeral trolley cars, were used for funeral processions in many cities in the late 19th and early 20th century, particularly cities with large tram systems.
The earliest known example in North America was Mexico City , which was already operating 26 funeral cars in At the turn of the century, "almost every major city [in the US] had one or more" : In Milan, Italy, hearse trams were used from the s initially horse-drawn to the s.
The main cemeteries, Cimitero Monumentale and Cimitero Maggiore, included funeral tram stations. Additional funeral stations were located at Piazza Firenze and at Porta Romana. It was introduced due to the wartime shortage of automotive fuel.
Newcastle , Australia also operated two hearse trams  between and In , Melbourne passenger tramcar C class number 30 was converted for transporting dogs and their owners to the Royal Melbourne Showgrounds. It was known as the "dog car", and was scrapped in A number of systems have introduced restaurant trams, particularly as a tourist attraction. This is specifically a modern trend.
Restaurant trams are particularly popular in Melbourne where three of the iconic W class trams have been converted. All three often run in tandem and there are usually multiple meal sittings. Bookings often close months in advance. As from mid-October , Melbourne's restaurant trams were temporarily taken off the road after failing a Yarra Trams ' safety assessment due to badly weathered underlying structures. This area has a lower population density, has closer connections to Mannheim and Ludwigshafen and the railways connecting it to Karlsruhe are not electrified.
Construction of the underground station in Europaplatz in February A new stop will be built for tram line 3 in Grashofstrasse at Mühlburger Tor as the line branches off here; the new stop will not be used by Stadtbahn trains.
The tunnel will shorten the travel time for the Stadtbahn through the pedestrian zone and the stability of the timetable will improve. In addition, the platforms of the stations tunnel will have pedestals that are about 15 metres long with a height of 55 cm above the rail so that the first two doors of Stadtbahn trains will have step-less entry.
The platforms cannot consistently have a height of 55 cm, because the tunnel will be used by trams and DC services of the Stadtbahn, which have an entry level on the modern lines of 34 cm.
This line runs currently on a loop through the central city and it is not certain whether the line will be used as originally planned. Here there are platforms on both sides of the tracks.
In the future, the heights of the platforms on the right hand side will remain at 34 cm the height of platform for trams and on the left they will be lifted to 55 cm.
This will make possible level access to all modern trains. Weather protection will also be improved as part of the rebuilding, with the provision of roofs over individual platforms. Initial planning focused on a route running via central Rastatt , Iffezheim and Hügelsheim , but there has been political opposition to this route in Rastatt.
In recent years a route from Baden-Baden station to Baden-Airpark has been discussed  along with continued discussion of a route from Rastatt, with or without crossing central Rastatt.
An extension of line S2 from Spöck to central Bruchsal and from there towards Waghäusel is being examined. The route for this line, especially in the inner city of Bruchsal, is still controversial. Meanwhile, the affected communities have been given briefings on the planned route. The next step is expected to be the carrying out of a standardised assessment. Sign In Don't have an account?
AVG station Albtalbahnhof in Karlsruhe; behind to the right is the ramp towards the DB tracks towards Rastatt , behind to the left is the AVG line to Ettlingen Notice marking the transition from tram operating procedures BOStrab to EBO The Karlsruhe Stadtbahn is a German tram-train system combining tram lines in the city of Karlsruhe with railway lines in the surrounding countryside, serving the entire region of the middle upper Rhine valley and creating connections to neighbouring regions.
Contents [ show ]. S-Bahn systems in Germany. Augsburg Lübeck Mitteldeutschland Ulm. Stadtbahn systems in Germany.
In , the VBK's trams carried 66 million passengers and the city's bus carried another ten million.
Despite the extensive modernisation, passenger numbers stagnated between and at around 40 million annually. In , Verkehrsbetriebe Karlsruhe was converted into a public company, previously it had been a public utility owned by the city.