2 Auswirkungen der Globalisierung auf die Entwicklungsländer

Deutschland als Wirtschaftsstandort bei Investoren sehr beliebt

Informationen zu Forschungsprojekte von.

Das Vertrauen internationaler Firmen ist in erster Linie in den exzellenten Rahmenbedingungen hierzulande begründet. Deutschland verfügt über ein umfangreich ausgebautes Straßen- und. Eine Weltstadt besitzt oder besaß zentrale Bedeutung für große Teile der Welt auf politischem, wirtschaftlichem und/oder kulturellem Gebiet. Darüberhinausgehend wird gefordert, dass eine Weltstadt ihre eigene begrenzte Weltökonomie dominiert.

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Die Geschichte des Internets lässt sich in drei Phasen einteilen. In der Frühphase ab Mitte der er Jahre wurden die Grundlagen gelegt, die Technik demonstriert und zur Anwendungsfähigkeit entwickelt.

Diese sahen sie nur durch ein zentral gesteuertes Netz mit dedizierter Leitungsnutzung für jede einzelne Kommunikation gewährleistet.

Die Telekommunikationsunternehmen vor allem in England , Italien , Deutschland und Japan unterlegten daher den unberechenbaren Paketflüssen eine virtuelle Kanalstruktur.

Auch in diesem System werden Pakete verschiedener Verbindungen auf derselben physikalischen Leitung transportiert, aber nur bis zu einer Obergrenze, bis zu der die Kapazität für jede einzelne Verbindung gewährleistet werden kann.

Die Bundespost bot ihn unter dem Namen Datex-P an. Damit ist der Gegensatz aufgespannt zwischen einem rhizomatischen Netz, das aus einem militärischen Kalkül heraus von einzelnen Knoten aus dezentral wuchert, und einer hierarchischen, baumförmigen Struktur, die zentral geplant und verwaltet wird.

Zur selben Zeit arbeitete Douglas C. Cerf , Jonathan Postel und Steve Crocker. Dort arbeitete unter anderem Robert E. Die ersten IMPs wurden im Mai ausgeliefert. Diese Standards werden nicht im Duktus eines Gesetzes erlassen, sondern als freundliche Bitte um Kommentierung. Sie mussten daher einen Weg finden, ihre Arbeit zu dokumentieren, ohne dass es schien, als wollten sie irgendjemandem etwas aufdrängen, sprich in einer Form, die offen für Kommentare war.

RFCs können von jedem erstellt werden. Sie sind als Diskussionspapiere gedacht, mit dem erklärten Ziel, die Autorität des Geschriebenen zu brechen. Die freie Verfügbarkeit der Spezifikationen und der dazugehörigen Referenzimplementationen waren ein Schlüsselfaktor bei der Entwicklung des Internets.

Larry Roberts schrieb hierfür einen Mail-Client. Das Netzwerk konnte sich sehen lassen. Es war Zeit für eine erste öffentliche Demonstration, die auf der International Conference on Computer Communications in Washington stattfand. Angeschlossen waren 40 Maschinen in den ganzen USA.

Zu den Demonstrationen gehörten interaktive Schachspiele und die Simulation eines Luftverkehrskontrollsystems. Teilnehmer aus England , Frankreich , Italien und Schweden waren dabei. Im selben Jahr starteten Projekte für radio- und satellitengestützte Paketvernetzung, letztere mit Instituten in Norwegen und England.

Andere neue Netzwerkunternehmen forderten BBN auf, diesen freizugeben. BBN sträubte sich zunächst, da der Code ständig verändert würde, gab ihn jedoch frei. BBN blieb der Auftragnehmer für den Betrieb des Netzes, doch militärische Sicherheitsinteressen wurden jetzt wichtiger. Anfang verfügte das Arpanet über 61 Knoten. Die erste Mailingliste wurde eingerichtet. In der beliebtesten Liste dieser Zeit diskutierte man jedoch über Sciencefiction. Das neue netzwerkverbindende TCP wurde im Juli erstmals in einem aufwändigen Versuchsaufbau demonstriert.

Da das Verteidigungsministerium dafür bezahlte, haben wir nach Beispielen gesucht, die für ein militärisches Szenario interessant sein könnten. Seit Mitte der er Jahre wurden Experimente zur paketvermittelten Sprachübertragung durchgeführt. TCP ist auf zuverlässige Übertragung ausgelegt. Pakete, die verloren gehen, werden erneut geschickt.

Im Falle von Sprachübertragung ist jedoch der Verlust einiger Pakete weniger nachteilig als eine Verzögerung. Damit wurde das Arpanet-Experiment offiziell beendet. Ein entscheidender Grund dafür, dass es funktionierte, ist meiner Meinung nach, dass es viele sehr kluge Menschen gab, die alle mehr oder weniger in dieselbe Richtung arbeiteten, angeführt von einigen sehr weisen Menschen in der Förderungsbehörde. Das Ergebnis war, dass eine Gemeinschaft von Netzwerkforschern entstand, die fest daran glaubte, dass unter Forschern Zusammenarbeit mächtiger ist als Konkurrenz.

Ich glaube nicht, dass ein anderes Modell uns dahin gebracht hätte, wo wir heute stehen. Mitglied kann jeder werden, indem er eine der etwa aufgabenorientierten Mailinglisten subskribiert und sich an den Diskussionen beteiligt. Sie müssen mit den bestehenden Strukturen zusammenarbeiten und Anschlüsse für mögliche Erweiterungen vorsehen.

Da es keine scharf umrissene Mitgliedschaft gibt, werden Entscheidungen nicht durch Abstimmungen getroffen. Wir glauben an einen groben Konsens und an ablauffähigen Code. Wenn sich ein interessantes Problem und genügend Freiwillige finden, wird diskutiert, ein ablauffähiger Code auch für alternative Lösungsansätze geschrieben und solange getestet, bis sich ein Konsens herausbildet. Dies führt dazu, dass sie frühzeitig von einer Vielzahl von Anwendern unter den unterschiedlichsten Bedingungen getestet werden und diese breiten Erfahrungen in den Entwicklungsprozess eingehen, bevor ein Standard offiziell freigegeben wird.

Die Standards sind offen und frei verfügbar. Der kontinuierlichen Weiterentwicklung dieses Wissens steht somit nichts im Wege. Ein Förderungsantrag an die NSF wurde zunächst als zu kostspielig abgelehnt. Astrophysiker mussten nach Deutschland reisen, um einen in den USA hergestellten Supercomputer verwenden zu können. Dabei sollen alle Interessen berücksichtigt werden.

Der Standard soll in einem theoretischen Sinne vollständig sein. Er soll zugleich rückwärts kompatibel und abstrakt genug sein, um zukünftige Entwicklungen nicht zu verbauen.

Durch die begrenzte Zirkulation in den am Verfahren beteiligten Institutionen werden Standards auch nur begrenzt getestet, bevor sie verabschiedet werden. Ist ein Standard endlich verabschiedet, ist er von der Technik oft genug schon überholt. OSI hat sich nie sehr weit von den Papierkonzepten in den praktischen Computereinsatz hinein entwickelt und gilt heute als gescheitert.

Nur 45 der Host-Rechner blieben im Arpanet übrig. Gleichzeitig empfahl er das heute übliche user host. Die Betriebssysteme von Computer und Netz waren verschmolzen. Die freie Software 4. Tausende von Entwicklern in der ganzen Welt übernahmen es und legten so die Grundlage für das heutige globale Internet.

Durch die billigen Kleinstrechner und ihre Fähigkeit, per Modem zu kommunizieren, betrat eine neue Generation von Nutzerkulturen die Informatik- und Netzwelt. Ethernet-Karten wurden auch für PCs verfügbar. Sozial bildet es einen öffentlichen Raum, in dem jeder lesen und schreiben kann, zu Themen, die so ziemlich alles unter der Sonne umfassen.

Angelehnt an Tolkiens Dungeons and Dragons -Motive erlauben es diese Welten mehreren Spielern, gemeinsam durch rein textbasierte Räume zu ziehen, Drachen zu töten, Puzzle zu lösen und miteinander zu plaudern. Mit Hilfe von Telefonleitungen und X.

Die Masse der im Internet verfügbaren Informationen wurde immer unüberschaubarer. Der Bedarf nach Navigations- und Suchwerkzeugen führte zu neuen Entwicklungen an verschiedenen Forschungseinrichtungen. McCahill von der University of Minnesota hinzu. Im selben Jahr startete der Bibliothekar Rick Gates die Internet Hunt, ein Suchspiel nach Informationen, bei dem auch diejenigen aus den veröffentlichten Lösungsstrategien lernen konnten, die sich nicht selber beteiligten.

Bald folgten Getränkeautomaten , Kaffeemaschinen und eine Fülle von Webkameras. Die offene Architektur des Internets macht es jedoch möglich, jede Kommunikation an allen Knoten zwischen Sender und Empfänger abzuhören. Die Antwort auf dieses Problem lautet Kryptographie , doch die galt als militärisch-staatliches Geheimwissen. Anfangs konnten sich daran nur wenige Labors mit einer sehr hohen Bandbreite beteiligen, doch bald wurden die hier entwickelten Werkzeuge auch für den Hausgebrauch weiterentwickelt.

Basierend auf der vereinfachten Auszeichnungssprache Wikitext startete die Wikipedia und wurde als kollaborativ editiertes Online-Lexikon zur umfangreichsten Enzyklopädie der Welt. Als der Verein zur Förderung eines Deutschen Forschungsnetzes e. Im November sind insgesamt China führt seit den er Jahren Forschungen auf dem Gebiet der Computertechnik durch.

Die Forschung und Verwendung chinesischer Rechnernetze begann als erstes durch das Eisenbahnministerium im Jahre Es errichtete Weitverkehrsnetze damals noch: Die erste internationale Anbindung von China zum Internet geschah über einen Gateway in Deutschland, Universität Karlsruhe, September und ging von akademischen Kreisen aus.

Es ist auch mit Dingen beschäftigt, die die Zensur im Internet betreffen. Dadurch entstand auch ein bedeutender Markt für internetbasierte Produkte. Auch in Deutschland begann Anfang der er die Privatisierung der universitären Infrastruktur. Ein Wendepunkt lässt sich am Übergang von den er zu den er Jahren ausmachen. Die NSF verlagert die Netzwerkförderung von einer direkten Finanzierung der akademischen Backbone-Infrastruktur hin zur Bereitstellung von Etats, mit denen die Universitäten sich Konnektivität von kommerziellen Anbietern einkaufen.

The media profiles of the less well-known members of the management team are raised step-by-step using a clear concept. The initiative extends over several years. It has the desired effect, even if it is repeatedly overshadowed by extraordinary events. A French asset manager established throughout Europe wants to enhance its profile in Switzerland and build professional media relations. IRF develops a communications strategy and draws on the entire toolkit of media relations to implement it — including background discussions, interviews, bylined articles, roundtables and an annual visit to the head office.

Experts from Switzerland and abroad were introduced gradually to the Swiss media in accordance with the strategy paper. The coordinated programme boosted media coverage significantly and established a clear profile in the Swiss media. As a result, investor interest has increased. The cradle of the international luxury hotel sector is to be found in Switzerland. As long ago as the 18th century, the first grand hotels were established between Geneva and Zurich, and over the past years these served as role models for the global development of the luxury hotel sector.

Strength of innovation, pioneering spirit and Swiss perfection and quality continue to shine out into the whole world to this day. IRF oversees the worldwide profile of the group of 41 most exclusive 5-star hotels in Switzerland in the field of media work and publications.

Through the targeted positioning of individual examples, as well as active storytelling, thought leadership is achieved in the Swiss luxury hotel field and added value is created for the collective umbrella brand. Editorial supervision of the in-house glossy magazine furthermore supports international media work, creates emotional content in the communications and promotes cross-marketing amongst the members.

A young and fast-growing company in the aviation industry, headquartered at Basel Airport, wants to raise its public profile. Together with the management, IRF develops building blocks to establish consistent global external communications.

Journalists from around the world are invited to events, trade fairs, one-on-one discussions and visits to the business premises, in order to make the company and its activities tangible and experienced. With personal statements from the owners and management, as well as through exercised openness, the previously relatively inaccessible company, which faced rumours and suppositions, raises its public profile significantly.

Today the enterprise is an exemplary business and is seen as an attractive employer in the Basel region. Ahead of the stockmarket listing and as part of a broader communications concept, IRF invites selected media representatives to visit the company headquarters, in order to provide the media with insights into the business that has tended to operate out of the limelight.

Thanks to the clear communications about the virtues of the business, which are carefully tailored to the needs of particular target groups, the stockmarket floatation is a huge success. The company shares are several times oversubscribed. Companies based abroad which are listed on the SIX Swiss Exchange often lack immediate and direct contact with local investors, analysts and media representatives.

A locally established partner can be helpful for companies that would like to target Swiss investors, be covered by Swiss analysts and be focused on by Swiss journalists. This includes handling enquiries from private shareholders, calling meetings with potential new institutional investors, organising information events about the annual financial statements, contact with SIX or running perception analyses to identify and interpret the sentiment toward this company on the market.

Listed companies are very much in the media spotlight and are subject to a large number of communication obligations. For this reason, financial communications need to be planned with care, in order to supply stakeholders with the information they require. IRF helps several listed companies to plan and produce the annual report, partly for many years. In addition, IRF prepares the documents for the media conferences and conducts a rehearsal with the management.

IRF is also engaged by customers to develop new concepts for annual reports sometimes in close cooperation with design agencies , accompanies strategically significant changes such as the transition of the annual report from a printed copy to a fully online version, and derives action recommendations for even more effective reporting from best practice analyses.

A foreign company wants to strengthen its presence in Europe and significantly expand its offering by strategically acquiring a listed Swiss company. IRF develops a communication concept together with the company to outline the strategic value of the transaction. The reasons for the transaction and the plans for the acquired company are explained in detail with media relations — this prevents rumours and speculation at an early stage. At the same time, an ongoing dialogue is maintained with employees, customers and authorities.

Constant communication ensures that the media and the public are made aware of the strategic considerations of the acquisition and creates confidence in the new owner. Communication contributes to the success of the public takeover bid. A Swiss company in the healthcare market wants to separate its group; one of the two business units is to be listed separately on the SIX Swiss exchange. IRF advises the company on development of the communication concept. IRF deploys important PR tools as a website, a shareholder brochure and an image brochure, and gets involved in media relations.

A clear profile of the company as a leading healthcare company in Switzerland and heightened awareness of the business.

And a successful transaction on the capital market. A listed Swiss industrial company gets into operational difficulties, and the share price drops accordingly. The Board of Directors and the Management Board are concerned about hostile takeover attempts as a consequence of the undervaluation.

IRF is tasked with developing lines of defence to prepare for this eventuality. A strengths and weaknesses analysis highlights the possible points of attack of potential bidders. Decision-making processes are created, drafts for media releases are prepared and additional communication and IR tools are determined based on this analysis.

The company also closely monitors any shareholder changes. Hostile takeover bids are surprisingly common. As a result, time is a scarce commodity once an offer like this has been reached.

It is therefore advisable to make preparations in good time. A foreign bank in Switzerland unexpectedly falls under suspicion of having failed to observe guidelines to prevent money laundering.

High-profile clients are named in the press. International journalist networks publish confidential data concerning international financial transactions. IRF was commissioned, in close cooperation with the board of directors as well as involved law firms, to draw up possible scenarios and the corresponding communication strategies.

Depending upon how the case develops and the result of external investigations, statements, language rules and media releases are drafted. In addition, clear rules are defined, detailing how incoming media enquiries are to be processed and answered professionally, promptly and within the context of the statutory provisions bank client secrecy, ongoing investigations, etc. In the field of crisis communications, responsiveness, honesty and clear processes are the key factors for successful communications.

An investment specialist that focuses on sustainability investments is for the first time planning to promote its annually published study actively in social media.

IRF identifies important influencers in the sustainable investment field in the channels Twitter and LinkedIn, and draws up editorial schedules for the two channels. A week before the study is due to be published, the client initiates the teaser phase by posting news and tweets.

The frequency is substantially increased on the day on which the study is published. Multipliers bloggers, online media pick up the study and spread it further.

Numerous new followers are recorded on Twitter and LinkedIn. A SMI listed company wants to link its expertise more closely to current events on selected social-media channels and expand its existing communities. IRF uses different reaches local to global to research topically important events in the industry and draws up a detailed editorial plan for twelve months at a time.

There are also multiple posts on current events on a daily basis newsjacking. To intensify dialogue with the global community, company experts are set up as ambassadors and are actively supported at the start of their activities with an editorial plan. Making a success of professional entry to the social media. A Swiss association dedicated to promoting sustainable financial investments makes changes to its communications strategy because an increasing number of members and the media operate in social media.

The client previously only had a presence in the form of its own website. In workshops and courses, working together with the client, IRF lays down the social media ground rules, sets up the selected Twitter and LinkedIn channels, and develops an editorial plan for the starting phase.

Monitoring and precautions for possible communication risks also need to be implemented. Thanks to the infusion of knowledge in the workshop and training courses, the client is quickly able to navigate the new environment independently. Journalists and multipliers begin following the client on Twitter and LinkedIn. In overall terms, the number of followers rises steadily. A leading global provider of security solutions wants to promote the sense of community within its numerous group companies.

The aim is to facilitate cooperation and create synergies by developing common company principles amongst the businesses and brands in Europe and overseas. The Management Board sees this as a source of substantial potential for growth and increase in profitability.

In close cooperation with IRF, in various workshops, the Group management identifies seven common company principles that have been represented as a symbol. Members of the Group management explain the new principles in a company video on the intranet.

Employees are also presented with the values and the visualised symbol on posters and in brochures. Employees of all Group companies are aware of and understand the common company values.

They are more motivated and take the initiative to form teams across the Group and reach new goals together. Internal communications — guideline for employees in particularly unsettled times.

Internal communications become hugely important when a company is experiencing changes. They ensure that all stakeholders clearly understand their particular roles in this transformation, and are provided with the same level of information. IRF provided an internationally operating pharmaceutical company with communications support while it relocated its European headquarters from Lausanne to Zurich.

The starting point was the comprehensive communications concept for the internal and external communications. A core element here was training managers to provide employees with clear and simultaneously empathetic communications. Executives successfully remained in dialogue with the employees during a phase that was characterised by uncertainties. In spite of the unwelcome news, employees engaged constructively in the consultancy process, and this in turn impacted positively on the parameters of the severance scheme.

The company was able to finalize the consultancy process on schedule. Closures or the relocation of production sites trigger uncertainties and fears amongst employees, business partners and public authorities. However difficult the messages may be, the process needs to be tightly controlled at the communications level, in order to ensure that additional frustration and vulnerabilities are not created.

With the help of its international partner FTI Consulting, IRF provided a globally operating chemicals manufacturer, domiciled in Switzerland, with communications support during the closure of a production site in Great Britain.

The starting point was the classic communications concept for internal and external communications. A key aspect was preparing the management team for the need to provide employees with the best possible support during this delicate process. The consultation process with employees proceeded constructively and was wrapped up within the set timeframe. A world-leading Swiss industrial company shows strong growth and almost doubles its workforce within around two years. This also leads to greater demands and requirements in terms of communication in the company.

Ground needs to be made up, particularly in internal communication. IRF developes immediate and regular measures to make internal communication systematic. The measures focus on open dialogue between the Management Board and employees to build trust, and guidance and identification of new employees with the company.

IRF also advises on and assists with a global employee survey and creating internal publications in the event of ballots. This investment is expensive, however, and opinions are divided as to who should pay. Together with a globally operating company that is active in the field of modernising public energy infrastructures, IRF develops communication activities to position the company as the industry and innovation leader in its specialist field. These measures enable the company to exercise direct influence on public opinion, by for example getting its own executives appointed to key steering committees as industry representatives.

As a link between politicians and the research community, the company makes an important contribution towards supplying innovative technologies that significantly support the realisation of the energy objectives.

The head office of a globally active pharmaceutical company is based in Switzerland. The company would like to be perceived as a relevant market player on the Swiss business scene and in the Swiss health policy.

One particular aim is to strengthen the perception of the economic, social and societal importance of the company in Switzerland among specific target groups and political opinion leaders. IRF maps out an active public affairs strategy and identifies strategically significant stakeholders and opinion leaders from the Swiss health policy.

Personal meetings are arranged with the national manager of the Swiss subsidiary and accompanied by IRF. In addition, IRF supports the company in individual discussions and negotiations of the management with cantonal and local authorities at individual production sites in order to promote mutual understanding and to address business interests in relation to the location canton.

Universities and large companies in the Zurich region have decided to launch a cooperation with research and the private sector, with the aim of developing innovative and sustainable solutions for Switzerland. They need a suitable site to do this. The situation is clear, the project is supported politically at both a national and cantonal level. However, locally there are individual critical voices. The project also needs private investors in order to develop the location.

IRF creates a communication concept to regularly inform local residents as well as local and regional journalists, and develops texts and information brochures.

In addition, IRF proposes suitable measures for communication with investors, coordinates enquiries and takes on the production of brochures and presentations.

IRF also organises an event which around interested parties take part in. They include large multinational companies, rapidly growing young firms, interest groups and individuals. We will gladly provide you with references upon request.

Not only are we communications experts, we always have our fingers on the pulse of selected industries. Thanks to our many years of experience in top-level corporate communications positions and in communications consulting, we know the issues and challenges facing a host of different industries. Since we speak the same language as our clients, the services we provide are results-oriented, efficient and effective.

German, English, Turkish back to overview. German, French, English back to overview. Doctoral thesis, University of Zurich, Various contributions to special interest magazines and the financial press Institutions Swiss Forum of Communications Law back to overview. German, French, English, Spanish back to overview.

German, French, English, Swedish back to overview. German, English, Croatian, French back to overview. German, English back to overview. German, French, English Areas of special expertise: Leistung schafft Vertrauen pages in Wolfgang Immerschitt, Profil durch PR, Wiesbaden Gabler Various contributions to special interest magazines and the financial press back to overview. IRF Communications has a qualified and experienced team with an interdisciplinary background in the following sectors: Pragmatic — we execute communications strategies effectively and efficiently.

Clever — we come up with sound solutions for successful positioning or effective damage control. A business network that spans the globe. There are currently no open positions. If that describes you, we invite you to send us your CV details: IRF Communications AG Jürg Stähelin Rämistrasse 4, Postfach Zürich Requirements A university degree or equivalent qualification An interest in finance and communications Financial, communications or marketing experience and know-how Fluency in German and English, French an advantage Strong professional drive and an ability to work independently Quality-first mind-set Service-oriented, strong client focus An ability to keep a clear head even when things get hectic Team spirit and sense of humour What IRF Communications offers A unique interface between the worlds of business, finance and the media A chance to work on international project teams A challenging job An open work atmosphere A young and professional team Experience and client portfolio of a Swiss market leader.

Cocktail Am 7. Cocktail Am Communication competence for companies. Communications concepts for positioning companies, organizations, projects and persons Communications and media training for company executives and board members Reputation and perception surveys: Surveys of target groups investors, analysts, journalists on communications and perception issues Benchmark studies Internal communications: Internal roll-out of company strategy, defining and anchoring company values, post-merger integration processes, etc.

Management of media relations from A to Z: Analysis, development and implementation of communications strategy Communication of financial results: Strategy and implementation, roadshows, management of investor relations, contact with analysts and shareholder representatives Annual reports: Overall coordination, concept and content, communication of sustainability topics to target groups Best practice analyses and recommendations: Annual reports, value reporting, director and executive compensation reports, sustainability reports etc.

Advice and support during crisis situations: Legal proceedings, financial issues, product issues, management issues, etc. Prevention of crisis situations by means of communicative measures Crisis communications concept: Organization, procedures, guidelines, best practice Training for crisis communications: Planning, execution, analysis and conclusions Overview client projects.

Strategy, processes and organization of internal communication Analysis and reorientation of internal communication channels Communication of change processes such as a new business strategy, changes in company values, reorganization, post-merger integration Planning and hosting of internal events conference for managers, staff events Internal campaigns such as sustainability, safety at the workplace, social engagement Overview client projects.

Political communications Representation of interests in policy-making processes Sensitization of government officials and the broader public Advice on strategy, organization and processes Networking with political decision-makers Monitoring of the political agenda Overview client projects. The IRF Communications team has a great deal of experience in the intricacies of contacts between businesses and economic organizations, as well as between opinion leaders in the capital market and the general public.

Publications News Specialist Papers Archiv. Transmitting knowledge and experience. Swiss PR agencies ranking Guidance should not be a requirement for exchange-listed companies Zurich, December 17,

1 Beschreibung und Definition des Globalisierungsprozesses

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