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General historiography on the subject of country seats tends to consider architecture to be of utmost importance and the most effective means of disseminating power. The lack of primary sources makes it difficult to establish exactly why Child carried out landscape rather than architectural improvements. It is possible that rebuilding was too expensive and not something that Child was prepared to undertake after his initial acquisition.

Despite this, the cost of landscape improvements was still considerable. If Child believed in the longevity of country seat ownership then it is likely he expected rebuilding to take place at some point in the future.

Wanstead House, Watercolor and graphite. The stronger he became, the greater the need for an estate that matched his significance. This means that some of the features depicted by Kip and Knyff are works carried out by gardeners George London and Henry Wise in As a result, they are somewhat complex pictorial sources that conflate two different periods of ownership.

It is therefore necessary to refer to contemporary descriptions of the gardens in order to establish which features were introduced by Child.

Avenue originally leading to the house, Wanstead Park. The length of the avenues represented the extent of land belonging to its owner. In the centre of the axis of avenues stood the country seat, the central power of the estate and surrounding environment. The Kip and Knyff engraving Wanstead looking north, in two sections , depicts potted plants situated behind a brick wall nearby the house.

This was a recommended technique to protect more exotic plant life such as orange and lemon trees from the wind. Aside from shared bonds, there seems to be little involvement in the company.

Contemporary accounts describe the interiors at Wanstead to have included chintz and Indian papers but this could merely have been due to contemporary fashions rather than any direct link to the Company. Her decision to marry William Wellsley Pole, nephew of the Duke of Wellington was arguably a poor decision, for William was already struggling with debts at the time of their marriage in Within ten years, William and Catherine were faced with no alternative but to sell the contents of Wanstead House in order to pay off these extortionate debts.

The final collapse came when the house was pulled to the ground and sold off as building material in A study of Wanstead differs from other case studies covered in the East India Company at Home project largely due to a lack of material evidence which makes it difficult to evaluate the extent to which connections with East India Company were reflected at Wanstead.

The Wanstead case study also dates earlier than many of the houses discussed in the East India Company at Home project and therefore provides an early example of the ways in which the country seat was used as a tool to both enhance and reflect power and prosperity. The landscape improvements carried out by Child provide an insight into the types of landscape features that were fashionable in the late seventeenth century. Surviving contemporary descriptions of Wanstead largely comment on the landscape rather than the Elizabethan mansion, demonstrating that the gardens were a new feature worthy of commentary.

As a result, t his case study challenges existing historiography by demonstrating that landscape was equally effective as the country house for newly moneyed gentlemen to express new found status and wealth. To read the case study as a PDF, click here. A Selection , ed.

Penguin, , p. S de Beer, Oxford: Clarendon Press, , pp. Clarendon Press, , p. Political Science and Critical Theory Turing's meadow computation Heavy rain Mass Observation National Income and Expenditure Simone de Beauvoir's The Second Sex new international sociology - radioactive time s Anthropocene - The Institute of Community Studies Unsupported mothers - child soldiers Karl Popper's Science, Conjectures and Refutations article New Scientist magazine launched International Geophysical Year Outline of Human Genetics s: New Society magazine launched - the people's university Juliet Mitchell's Psychoanalysis and Feminism The coming and going Corporatism Glasnost Big bangs and risk Diana H.

Do your own word processing! Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics Manuel Castells' The Information Age and Hermeneutics of Quantum Gravity Sociology top ten Anthony Giddens' Reith Lectures A millennium bug in liquid modernity Free and democratic encyclopedia New international relations A prize for humanities and social science The will to make poverty history? International Year of Statistics Brain rain e on Hendon Followed by Cambrian - Ordovician - Silurian Azoic: Having no trace of life or containing no organic remains.

Oxford Engish Dictionary Wikipedia Wikipedia: Origin of water on Earth 3,,, years ago Did life first come into being in a primordial soup of compounds? In Alexander Ivanovich Oparin argued that it did.

See biological bases - circumstances - primeval swamp. The era of the earliest living beings on earth. Putative fossils are reported from 3,,, years ago. The reference here is to possible cyanobacteria from the Warrawoona Group in Western Australia.

Also dated 3,,, years ago. See stromatolites Hamelin Pool stromatolites in Western Australia: Stromatolites which are found to be up to a metre high are believed to be hundreds to thousands of years old as they grow at a maximum of 0. Seaweed , Algae-colonies, Flagellate algae. The reference relates to Multicellular filaments from arctic Canada identified as a red algae Bangiomorpha pubescens.

See seaweeds of Alaska. Sponges, Seaweed, Giant seaweed , Coral. Brachiopods [Bivalves Wikipedia ]. Various forms of Annelidae [worms. Rocks and fossils of the Welsh periods Cambrian - Ordovician - Silurian are similar: Before the appearance of any vertebrate animals. Age of sea scorpions and trilobites. Wells Now thought there were early vertebrates without jaws in the Cambrian. Jawed vertebrates became common in the Devonian. Picture of Paradoxides Bohemicus from the Cambrian period from J.

Taylor's Geological Stories Trilobites lived in the sea. All life in Cambrian times seems to have lived in water. The Burgess Shale contains the best record we have of Cambrian animal fossils.

What we now call Silurian was his upper Silurian. It topped the Cambrian and underlay the Old Red Sandstone.

In one could buy a hand coloured engraving called "The Antidiluvian World. Illustrations of the animals, reptiles, birds, fishes, trees, plants etc which existed in different epochs prior to the creation of man , and whose remains are found entombed in the various strata. London, Published by James Reynolds Strand, 20t. This showed life beginning with the Silurian system, which it described as "a marine deposit of vast extent containing abundance of marine organic remains. Encrinites and marine plants 2.

Graptolites rock writing are thought to be horny skeletons of small creatures. Some are pictured here from the Observers Book of Geology , Their many different forms have enabled beds of ancient rock to be identified. From primal swamp to speaking humans: Ernst Haeckel said that the Pithecoiden monkey theory of human evolution requires tracing our animal ancestors before monkeys. He began to do this in in the General Morphology.

Silurian fish are followed by Devonian Lurchfische ," [lungfish] "the Carboniferous amphibians, the Permian reptiles and in the Mesozoic the first mammals. Mammals appear again in the Triassic as monotremes [egg layers], then in the Jurassic as marsupials [nurturing babies in pouches], and the Cretaceous The oldest placental mammals, in the Tertiary period Eocene , include our lowest primate ancestors, including lemurs, the first catarrhines the Monkey Cynopitheken , and later the great apes anthropomorphic.

From a branch of the apes, speechless ape-man Pithecanthropus alalus arose in the Pliocene , leading, finally, to the speaking person. Some life left the water. Ichthyostega Wikipedia Greek ikhthus: Archaeopteris grew up to seven metres 23 feet tall, with a trunk of lignin and cellulose and branches supporting fern-like fronds extending horizontally to capture sunlight.

All plants were responsible for the transformation, but Archaeopteris was important because it made up 90 percent of the forests during the last 15 million years when these changes accelerated" Scheckler, and Jobst Wendt. Deposition of mountain or carboniferous limestones of England and Wales.

Rocks deposited during the Carboniferous period - million years ago underlie almost all of the Peak National Park and probably two thirds of the remainder of Derbyshire. Chatsworth House - Where Paxton built a greenhouse: Carboniferous limestone green Clay Cross: Carboniferous limestone green , near to millstone grit buff. The limestone continues under the grit and the coal measures.

Igneous intrusions in the limestone red: Bonsall area igneous rocks includes a stone comprising basalt and dolerite, locally referred to as toadstones.

A complex of mine and natural cavern near Matlock Bath inspired the mine and cavern feature in the limestone at the Sydenham display. Plate 22 in Observers Book of Geology includes a depiction by Eli Marsden Wilson in the Natural History Museum, which it titles "A primeval swamp of the chief coal-forming period". The picture used here comes from Edwin J. Houston's The Elements of Physical Geography Philadelphia , which says "The continents during this age consisted mainly of large, flat, marshy areas, covered with luxuriant vegetation.

Lage der Kontinentalschollen für die Karbonzeit ohne Rücksicht auf Wasserbedeckung - Location of continental floes for the Carboniferous period without regard to water cover.

The and editions of Wegener's book contain a map of the world at three time periods: Late Carboniferous Jung Karbon: Named after the Perm district in Russia.

In Britain includes dolomite limestones running south from Durham. Wells' The Outline of History Emerged in the late Carboniferous. Flourished in the Permian. In Greek sauros is a lizard. From this came saurian - applied to lizard-like creatures, including crocodiles , ichthyosaurus and plesiosaurs in water, pterosaurs in the air, and dinosaurs like megalosaurus and brontosaurus.

Graph attempting to represent extinction events based on replacement of certain marine fossils. The Permian-Triassic P - Tr extinction is at the centre.

The table below is from D. Sepkoski's "Mass extinctions in the marine fossil record", published in Science in April Raup and Sepkoski say that "five mass extinctions are clearly defined". They occured "near the ends of geologic periods", which reflects the fact that the periods were originally defined, in the first half of the 19th century, using major changes in the fossils records.

It is here that its prehistoric animals begin. According to Owen its animals are Batrachia, [Wikipedia] , from the Greek word for a frog, now represented by "frogs, toads, and newts, or water-salamanders".

But our noblest fossil animal is the crocodile Young and Bird under "Fishes and Amphibia". Archosaurs [Wikipedia] , ancestors of birds and crocodiles, became the dominant faunas. Phytosaurs [Wikipedia] first appear during the Carnian. With many other large crurotarsan [Wikipedia] reptiles, they disappear at the end of the Triassic.

Internet Archive - offline. This one was discovered in Kansas. Pterosaurs meaning "winged lizard" were flying reptiles that existed from the late Triassic to the end of the Cretaceous. See Dimorphodon - Stonesfield Slate - - - The Tethys sea developed between Laurasia north america, europe and asia and Gondwana africa southwards during the Jurassic Period.

The ancestors of our fir trees and the monkey puzzle tree. Observers Book of Geology and Wikipedia Timeline of plant evolution. Picture clip from J. Such is the picture of the lias" Wills p. Taylor 's "What the piece of jet had to say". See Lulworth forest and Hanover Point. Jet was popular after when Queen Victoria wore it following the death of Prince Albert.

The body but not the head of the Anning's find is lost. This drawing of a Ichthyosaurus fish lizard is from J. Associated with Saurians , especially Ichthyosaurus. See Cambridge Greensands - - - Anning - - - - - - - - Buckland named "fossil faeces Since Buckland, coprolite sometimes just means rounded lumps of fossilised material.

Dimorphodon [Wikipedia] was a medium-sized pterosaur from the early Jurassic Period first discovered by Mary Anning in The Sydenham display featured Pterodactyles from the Ooolite and one from a chalk pit in the Cretaceous. Steneosaurus bollensis previously Teleosaurus chapmani Konig fossils are found within Europe, including Germany, France and England. The Whitby crocodiles are regared as such Teleosaurs. Thalattosuchia or sea crocodiles [Wikipedia] ,. The Stonesfield "slates" are limestones, originally deposited in a shallow sea.

William Buckland obtained fossil bones from the quarries which later composed Megalosaurus , shown here dominating the Oolitic island at the centre of the Sydenham display. To the right flew "Pterodactyles of the Ooolite", Buckland's Pterodactyle , found "pretty abundantly" at Stonesfield. In , Jane Francis named the dominant tree conifer Protocupressinoxylon purbeckensis Early cypress-wood from the Purbecks in an article now online.

The reconsruction right is from the article. See New occurrences of the wood Protocupressinoxylon purbeckensis Francis Generalised section across the Weal in south-east England, crossing the escarpments downs in the north, but following the Ouse valley in the south. From Wills p. Also see Bucks Geology Group. See Gateway to the Earth and dinosaurs. At the exhibition , a Pterodactyl dominates the chalk and two Iguanodon dominate the Wealden deposits. Jukes-Browne, of the Geological Survey of England.

Culver Cliff, Isle of Wight was photographed in , when I was twelve and it not yet a milion years old. The chalk ridge running along the centre of the island, from the Needles by Alum Bay on the west to Culver on the east, has younger rocks to the north and older ones to the south. Recently a few fossils of actual flowers have been added to the leaf collections. Clues from Nebraska and Kansas by M. Pabian of the University of Nebraska shows a fossil flower from Rose Creek, Nebraska, with petals and stamens.

Rather than call this Middle Tertiary "in I proposed the name of Miocene, selecting the 'faluns' of the valley of the Loire in France as my example or type".

The world never experienced a more beautiful period. That period was the Miocene, and by all manner of logical reasoning it was the time when man should have appeared" Mastodon, Mammoth, and Man by John Patterson MacLean page Picture of Miocene mammals from The Prehistoric World: Sommeone suggested Dryopithecus cracked the stones. Histoire - See Mortillet. He named the monkey whose bones these were, Dryopithecus fontani [See below]. They were found in a strata of marly clays banc d'argile marneuse from the Miocene being exploited at the base of the plateau on which Saint-Gaudens is built,.

Fontan recovered from the same site, bones of Macrotherium , Rhinoceros , Dicrocerus elegans , apparently identical to species of the same genera previously found at Sansan. Lartet concluded on the evidence he had that this monkey, of very great size, mainly ate fruit, and lived usually in trees, as Gibbons of the present time.

He said he took the name Dryopithecus from [Greek] Dryos tree, oak and pithekos monkey. So Lyell is correct in linking the name to oaks found in lignite. Monsieur Fontan, after who the full name Dryopithecus fontani comes, is named as Urbaine Fontan in the Journal de Toulouse. He may also be "A. The Journal de Toulouse carried to reports of the discovery the second correctin the first on 3. Fontan is reported as saying the find is the more interesting as Cuvier had not managed to find such a fossil.

Flourens "went even further, this unexpected result gives him hope that one will soon find fossil men". Plate and notes adapted provided with Lartet's note. The same series from an adult Chimpanzee - 3. Orang from Borneo - 4. Gibbon from Siamang - 5. Gorilla 7, 8, and 9 are Dryopithecus. Lartet says the Siamang , "placed by Zoologists in general in the last row of the tribe of the Simians or higher apes, nevertheless, provide by their skeleton, a sum of characters approaching the human type much greater than one can find in Orang or even in the chimpanzee ".

Geological periods of hominids. Eolithic means dawn of stone and the term eolith was used for flints that might have been hand wrought, but might be natural. This one is said to resemble a musk ox on the left and a bear on the right. European land mammals Wikipedia: Lindsay and others in wrote of "three major dispersal events of large mammals during the Pliocene" at 3,, years ago - then 2,, years ago - then 1,, years ago. The land-mammal stage that spans the upper Pliocene and lower Pleistocene 3,, to 1,, years ago Oxford: A Dictionary of Zoology by Michael Allaby An age that is dated at base at approximately 3,, years ago.

Early Villafranchian starts with appearance of a primitive bovid of the genus of Leptobos in Italy. Leptobos existed only during the Late Pliocene to Early Pleistocene, thus it is a diagnostic taxon for the Villafranchian-Nihewanian land mammal ages of Europe and China.

The Etruscan rhinoceros Stephanorhinus etruscus was the European rhino from the early Pleistocene. It was succeeded the Steppe Rhino Stephanorhinus hemitoechus in the middle Pleistocene. Elephant-Equus elephant horse event. It starts with the appeance of Equus real horse and Mammuthus meridionalis. Equus was derived from a species of the single-toed horse Pliohippus, known only from North America.

The Wolf event, may fall near 1,, years ago. The late Villafranchian starts with the appearance of Canis etruscus Etrurian wolf. Term introduced by Lyell in for ice age deposits after the Pliocene ]. Current ice age with permanent ice sheets in Antarctica and perhaps Greenland, and fluctuating ice sheets elsewhere.

The ice across much of Russia preserved remains of Pleistocene mammals such as this mammoth from near Moscow whose mounted bones are diplayed in the entrance hall to the Orlov Museum of Paleontology. The Woolly Rhinoceros also roamed Siberia. Paleolithic Old stone age. See stone and bone. The picture, from Wikipedia , is of an Acheulean handaxe from Zamora in Spain. From Saint-Acheul , a suburb of Amiens where the first tools from this period were found in Acheulean The start of Antroparkbaby in the European Acheulean is based on the Bilzingsleben site of early palaeolithic human remains in Thuringia, Germany, dated about , years ago.

Gabriel de Mortillet 's classification. Conceptualising pre-historic human time in Europe. In prehistoric archaeology, Mortillet spoke, instead, of a fossile-directeur , which served the same function.

The Fossile- directeur was a tool made by humans rather than a biological remain. Lartet suggested four ages or periods based on associated fauna, to which Felix Garrigou added an earlier Hippopotamus period: Reindeer was divided into Solutrean and Magdalenian , and Robenhausian was added for the Neolithic period. Names of some periods of the paleolithic as classified by Gabriel de Mortillet.

Aggsbach's Paleolithic Blog Tertiary. See eoliths and pre-mode tools Thenaisienne - Eolithique. Picture 2 is an example shaped by fire. Picture 5 is an example with its edge bottom retouched by chipping. See mode one tools. The characteristic tool is often called an axe , but is a hand tool to cut, drill, trim and do everything.

Mortillet calls it a coup-de-poing blow of the fist - punch or knuckle-fist. Mousterian flint tools in transition to Solutrean Two sides of one flint pointe. Montillet notes the care and skill that has gone into shaping each side and comments that "this remarkable instrument approaches solutrean ".

A pointe has been retouched along the length of one side bottom "forming a very beautiful scraper". First part associated with mammoths, second with reindeer.

Tool remains include two types of pointes, which, although not abundant, are characteristic. One type is laurel leaf shaped, the other willow leaf with a side notch. Artistic retouching on both faces, at both ends and at the perimeter, distinguishes them from Mousterian pointes.

Later authors agree that the Solutrean represents the pinnacle of working flint and produced arrowheads of a perfection rarely equalled afterwards. See mode four tools. Humans lived in caves for the most part. Asociated with reindeer throughout. Characterised especially by development of instruments in bone and antler. It develops naturally from the Solutrean. Bone objects begin to appear at the end of the Solutrean and finely worked flint pointes are sometimes found in the early Magdalenian.

But the use of bone harms the development of flint objects, which are less beautiful. A dagger carved from reindeer antler. Wikipedia At the end of the Paleolithic a warmer climate forced reindeer north. Without this "animal heaven" the human populations of Western Europe lived in much more difficult times and stone industry declined.

The shelter beyond Tourasse, close to Saint-Martory Haute-Garonne provides a good set of tools, characterised by harpoons. Characterised by small flints with geometric shapes. Mortillet says that "primitive" Pottery , for general use, appeared for the first time in Europe during the Robenhausian, having been completely lacking during the Quaternary. The fist pots "vases" are crude. Only the surface is reddened by the fire. The interior of the pottery is coloured brown by the charcoal or black of smoke.

It is usually mixed with angular fragments of rocks or shells. This mixture intended to give consistency to the clay and to prevent splitting during drying and while cooking. These bottoms of these first pots are rounded, without a flattened foot. To stand upright they would have to be pressed into earth, sand or ash. Side nipples suggest suspension by cords. In geological time is Tertiary and Quaternary , until the start of the Neolithic in current time, which is marked by the polishing of stone tools.

It was considered possible that hunter humans had simply been replaced by other humans who tilled the soil. It has been suggested seriously?

The search for an alternative, develomental, process led to the two-stage theory becoming a three stage one with a Mesolithic middle stage. Mortillet's research gap - the missing middle Mortillet: C'est ce qui constitue l'hiatus que nous constatons.

The entire discussion, I believe, is based on a misunderstanding. Between the Paleolithic era or the caves and the time Neolithic or polished stone, there is a hiatus; but this hiatus is just a simple gap in our knowledge. It is not a real gap in time and in the industry. Certainly the Paleolithic era has had to be connected and merge in the Neolithic, but we have yet to discover the point of contact.

Between the two eras, there has not been a period where Europe was uninhabitable; only the remains of the epoch of transition or passage have not yet been found and recognized. That is the gap we see. I repeat, this hiatus is not a real one, but exists only in the results of our studies and our current research. I owe this explanation because I am the main propagator of the idea of the hiatus. I pointed out the fact to stimulate research and investigations. The Tourassien later Azilian may have been suggested in and the Tardenoisien in The Tourassien and Tardenoisien industries were collated to form the Mesolithic period, which remained a controversial concept until after the second world war.

From the marxist approach of modes of production , the transition from the old stone age to the new was a transition from savagery to barbarism , and a transitional stage was not needed.

Gordon Childe wrote that cultivating the soil "was the first step in the neolithic revolution, and suffices to distinguish barbarism from savagery" , p. The major change from the chart is two transitional epochs between the old and new stone ages.

Carleton S Coon says his The History of Man begins about , years ago "at the beginning of the ice age". But he also writes of the "Pleistocene or age of ice" between one million years and 10, years ago 8,BC. It was the period of homo erectus Java , Peking , Olduvai erectus and Rhodesian that evolved into homo sapiens.

See phase 2 and phase 3. Jeremy Norman - See ape and Haeckel. Happisburgh - first known settlement in northern Europe , to , years ago a prominent warm stage in Britain. Boyn Gravels feet contain Chellean and Acheulean tools. Taplow Gravels 50 feet contain Mousterian tools. Called third interglacial if dating backwards, but H. Wells calls the "first interglacial period" Chellean Abbevillian culture in France. The fossil locality of Chilhac three is known for a rich Villafranchian fauna Boeuf It would be another , years before a hippopotamus were to waddle into Britain again.

A Encyclopedia says that the Piltdown remains "are usually attributed to the third inter-glacial period, but may be considerably older " The section from table 28 of The Earliest Englishman shows Piltdown Man as the earliest "species of man in western Europe". The "earliest Englishman" was a fraud. Swanscombe woman is genuine. The geology of Piltdown, in the Weald of East Sussex: The area is one of "Tunbridge Wells Sand" from the cretaceous period.

However, in places, there are shallow surface deposits of gravel. These deposits were not shown on the geological maps until after the first world war. Workman repairing roads excavated them, however, and are said to have provided Charles Dawson with his first scull fragment in The strata at Piltdown.

A few centimters to a meter 3. Edmunds mapped the Piltdown gravel in He found it correlated with the Thames Taplow gravels, much younger than the Swanscombe terrace deposits. Leonard Wills' list of recognised "cultural stages" begins with the Lower Paleolithic or river-drift race. Another source tells us river drift included the Piltdown skull and the Trinil and Heidelberg remains. It was related to the Strepean, Chellean and Acheulean ages. River man was followed by Middle Paleolithic or older cave man - Upper Paleolithic or newer cave man - and then Post-Glacial man.

The scraper on the cover was one of 32 worked flints found in "a clearly datable stratigraphic context" in the "Cromer Forest-bed Formation" at Pakefield, Suffolk, in Britain. The Somme valley in northern France is developed on an Upper Cretaceous Chalk bedrock continuous with that under the Thames and has has terrace system in its middle part about 70 km long.

Between Amiens and Abbeville, ten stepped alluvial formations nappes alluviales have been described. In the area of Amiens, the river terraces tiered system of Somme includes ten fossil alluvial the oldest the highest was set up there more than a million years.

These deposits are generally decalcified, with little wildlife, except at Abbeville. See also his thesis: Les terrasses quaternaires du bassin de la somme. On the basis of terrace stratigraphy, ESR-quartz dating, and biostratigraphic data, these fluvial deposits are allocated to MIS Handaxes discovered at the base of the slope deposits, directly overlying the fluvial sequence, can be, as a first hypothesis, allocated to MIS They are thus due to Homo heidelbergensis according to the age of the eponymous Mauer site in Germany.

Dating the earliest human occupation of Western Europe: New evidence from the fluvial terrace system of the Somme basin Northern France by Pierre Antoine , Emmanuelle Stoetzel and others Neanderthal developed in Europe and homo erectus in Africa. The picture shows a racial depiction of the separation in a s Children's Encyclopedia. The separation of "ape men" from "true men" is shown as equivalent to, or greater than, that separating humans from gorillas and chimpanzees.

True men then divide into two distinct lines - black negro - negroid - australoid and white european - mongoloid. This distinction is shown as equivalent to that between orang-utangs and gorillas. A group of individuals that actually or potentially interbreed in nature is considered the same species, however different appearances. See early human gene exchange. About , to , years ago Wooden spears made of spruce of from an ancient lakeshore hunting ground.

Found in a coal mine in Shöningen, near Hanover, Germany in MIS 10 about , years ago Bilzingsleben site in Germany. In the s Dietrich Mania excavated "three round ground plans of dwellings with hearths by their entrances". He "found large stones arranged in a circular manner. He thought that it probably was a base for a dwelling. However, ring-center analysis showed that the site was an open air site. Gamble proposed that humans congregated at the site around the fire ".

Stone chopping tools of small size, mainly flint. Numerous bone tools include hoes, scrapers , point and gougers. Some hoes made of antler or ivory. Some wooden artefacts preserved. In , Ireland celebrated four extinct residents: The stamps and the animals are discussed on paleophilatelie.

Megaloceros , the Irish elk, represents the Quaternay in the Sydenham display. But the Mousterian hunters had Technology moved its emphasis from fashioning cores to fashioning flakes. At the peak, Northern Hemisphere winters were generally warmer and wetter than now. The hippopotamus was distributed as far north as the rivers Rhine and Thames. Wikipedia - and further north: Bones from a hippopotamus, and some from rhinoceros and elephant , were dug up in Derby in They are now in the Derybshire Museum's new nature gallery.

A large number of sites in Britain are attributed to Marine Isotope Stage 5e, mainly on the basis of hippopotumus remains. None show signs of humans. Natural History Museum Harry William Whanslaw's picture shows "river-drift men" hunting the "straight-tusked elephant of prehistoric time".

An attempt to depict migrations from Madison Coonan's website. From the Near East, these populations spread east to South Asia by 50, years ago , and on to Australia by 40, years ago , when for the first time H. The bones were visually reassembled as a skeleton , which gave the basis for an artist's impression. See polished stone axe There seems to be more ideology than science in the distinction between "homo sapiens" and "homo neanderthalensis".

Arguably first presence of Homo sapiens in Europe. The site consists of two rock shelters. It has given its name to the Mousterian tool culture. Dated remains in Italy and Britain. Wikipedia article on dog. Dog like skull 36, years ago , remains near humans 17, to 16, years ago. Wolf or dog drawing 19, years ago.

Neanderthal 1 Femme de la race de Neanderthal. He has dated art in this group to 40, years ago leading to it being described as the world's oldest cave art - See Matthew MacEgan - Nature - National Geographic - BBC dating the region -. Die Höhle ist im hinteren Teil verschlossen". Art News The photograph is from the website of fahrrad-tour. It shows The figure of the lion human, an ivory carving from the tusk of a mammoth displayed in the Museum of Ulm.

The same page shows caves where figures have been discovered. About 35, years ago , Carleton S Coon begins his "second phase of history" "the skilled hunter and healer", when "man covers the face of the earth". Ending "about BC with the invention of agricuture". See 50,BC and phase 3. Rutot called the new race Paleolithic and argued that it enslaved the Neandethals.

About 30, years ago , modern homo sapiens entirely replaced earlier man-like forms. Weapons and tools of flint and bone survive along with female carved stone figures with exaggerated sexual features, suggesting fertility symbols and magical ceremonies. This last level immediately succeeds the latest Mousterian horizon in the cave. Toolmaking culture most closely associated with Venus figurines. The blade is 5. It was found in a Gravettian strata at Brassempouy Right: Four views of one burin , 5.

A Pictorial Encyclopedia mentions cave painting and tools and says: Peking - Piltdown - Neanderthal - Cromagnon. Head carved from mammoth ivory showing a person with an asymmetrical face, found in Dolni Vestonice, Southern Moravia. It is a face: Everything points to the Ice Age hunter having depicted himself". Also known as the Venus of Brassempouy.

Acquisition number MAN 47 The Venus of Willendorf was found in Austria in It is thought to be a carving of a woman, without facial features, fat , with pendulous breasts and a huge, perhaps pregnant, belly. Fragment of engraved reindeer metatarsal decorated on one surface with two reindeer, one of which is now incomplete. Stored in the British Museum where the acquisition notes say "exacavated by both Christy and Lartet in ".

Dieu cornu horned god or Sorcier sorcerer or chaman shaman. In animal skins and stag antlers. Upper wall above the entrance to the 20,, year-old grand gallery. Petit Sorcier a l'Arc Musical Little sorcerer with musical bow , amongst animals in cm wide panel on right hand wall of Sanctuary. In this picture, the little sorcerer is rotated from vertical to horizontal to show it as a person disguised in animal skins stalking prey. See discussion by Simona Petru, Documenta Praehistorica 39 , "Man, animal or both - Problems in the interpretation of early symbolic behaviour".

On "the highest mountains" "shells, skeletons of fish and sea monsters" have been found, showing the sea once covered them. Animals are found "far from their native areas": Coder and Howe's The Bible, Science and Creation , page 63 says "flood geology" dates creation to about 10, years ago "and relates most of the geological strata and fossil beds to the Flood".

In Arabic, a tell is a tall hill. In Midle East Archaeology, a tell is a mound formed by the accumulated remains of ancient settlements. Mesolithic tools from Britain. Scene of hunting of deer with bows and arrows. This included "eight distinct ages comparable to the Paleolithic and Mesolithic.

Sometimes classical antiquity is used for the period of ancient Greece and Rome. Christian antiquity refers to the early centuries of the Christian church. Foundations of 25 buildings discovered in peat wetland by Robert Rudolf Schmidt in About 20 two-room houses with walls of split wooden posts.

A much larger central building probably used for community acrivities. Other buildings possibly for storage. A hunting community with wheat and barley fields and livestock. Small polished stone hatchets and bone tools found. Hearths and clay ovens in the houses. Britannica "In prehistoric Europe the largest neolithic village yet known, Barkaer in Jutland, comprised 52 small, one-roomed dwellings, but 16 to 30 houses was a more normal figure; so the average local group in neolithic times would average to members".

Contains pictographs of heads, feet, hands, numbers and threshing-boards. Now in the Ashmolean Museum, Oxford. Reign of Narmer in Egypt. The Narmer Palette left was discovered by James E. Quibell in in Hierakonpolis. On it, Narmer displaying the insignia of both Upper and Lower Egypt, giving rise to the theory that he unified the two kingdoms and was the founder of the first dynasty.

Narmer is sometimes identified with Menes. Papyrus, depicted on the Narmer Palette , is a plant that grew in the river Nile from which a writing material, also called papyrus, was made.

A setlement from this period lay under the Ur flood deposit disovered by the archaeologist Leonard Woolley and announced in In Wooley believed the 3. Jona Lendering writes "It is likely Eridu is south of the later city of Ur. This are "was the birthplace of cities and of civilisation about 5, years ago and home to the Sumerians and the later Babylonians ". Stuart Campbell, Manchester archeologist.

The first pyramid of Egypt. Said to have been designed by Imhotep, who may be the first architect whose name we know, and who was defied 2. The picture is taken from the Wikipedia website. Clicking on it will take you to more information. Noah took off the covering of the ark". Usher refering to Genesis 8: See "evidences of the Deluge" and flood geology. See Epic of Gilgamesh and Ur flood. Picture described as "Various animals entering the Ark built by Noah because of the great flood".

Excavation of Tell Khaiber, 20 kilometres from Ur about BC "We provisionally date the site to around 2, BC, the time of the sack of the city and the fall of the last Sumerian royal dynasty. Metres above sea-level of lowest images from succeding periods ordered by type of ship: Period four to five: Scandinavian boat drawings have been interpreted as skin boats, planked boats, dugouts and rafts.

All images with inturned prows and horizontal or slightly upturned keel extensions were 24 metes or more above sea level. Baal meant lord, master, owner or husband in Semitic languages. It was also applied to Gods. The plural was Baalim. Baalim might own specific areas, being the Gods of specific peoples.

The Jews also called God lord and believed he had a special relationship to them. However, they eventually believed in only one God monotheism who is master of all, and they believed that graven images should not be made of him. Vase painting BC in British Museum shows 4 oarsman, but 6 oars. Suggested there were 12 men, 6 oars each side, 3 men to a bench. The Ramesseum in Thebes is the 'mortuary temple' of this Egyptian king.

The Petrie Papyri were found beneath this. In periods four and five more elaborate "depictions of humans" Ling, page A large increase in the use of iron for tools and weapons took place from the neo-Assyrian period onwards. Jericho was in Israel. Around BC , Hiel is said to have rebuilt the walls. He laid its foundations at the cost of his firstborn son Abiram, and he set up its gates at the cost of his youngest son Segub, in accordance with the word of the LORD spoken by Joshua son of Nun" 1 Kings Bronze five - Sweden.

In the same period the first Upanishads were written. It shows a six wheeled Assyrian battering ram with a metal tip. The metal tip may well have been of iron. I received from him silver , gold , a golden bowl, a golden vase with pointed bottom, golden tumblers, golden buckets, tin , a staff for a king [and] spears.

Their father was the god of war, Mars. Abandoned, they were reared by a she wolf. Romulus murdered Remus before founding Rome. The stamp shows the bronze in the Capitoline Museum. Brandskogship - Boglösa This ship from Brandskog is the largest. Some have argued that it post-dates the Swedish bronze age Ling p.

Coins developed independently in Anatolia and Greece, India and China around the 7th and 6th centuries BC, spreading rapidly in the 6th and 5th centuries through Greece and Persia Ahuramazda has granted unto me this empire. Ahuramazda brought me help, until I gained this empire; by the grace of Ahuramazda do I hold this empire. Early years of the Roman Republic Burgess and Locke p. They say that "Among the Greeks the power of the head of the house was less absolute, since it was considered a trust to be administered for the welfare of the family.

The Priestly texts are usually related to the reading of the law by Ezra. Pictured on vase of Argo. Before Christ and forward from here. Tacitus wrote about the Baltic tribes of Suioneso [Swedes? Their naval craft had bow and stern constructed alike, equally well suited for landing, The oars were not fastened along the sides, but left free and they did not use sails. Hallendorff and Schuck p. Stone with engraved ship from the Roman iron age of the type described by Tacitus. The two centuries from AD to AD are a critical turning point in the Saint-Simonian system of history between the epoch with polytheist ideas and a society based on slavery, and that with "theological" ideas and a feudal organisation of society.

He rebuilt Byzantium , which was renamed Constantinopolis Constantinople , which became the new capital of the Empire, tolerated Christianity and other religions, and promoted Christianity throughout the empire. He called the First Council of Nicaea in at which the leaders of Christianity agreed unifying beliefs: The modern reconstruction uses wood and thatch. Most houses are partially sunk in the ground. About to Muhammad. The Quran, the revelations of God to Muhammad from to , was compiled into a single book shortly after Muhammad's death.

It is the primary source of Shariah law. A translation into English was made in The long journey into British life. Iron helmet from ship burial ground at Vendel in Uppland, Sweden. Early Germanic law codes were oral compilations of custom. Under contact with Rome, and literate civilisation, these laws began to be set down from the 7th century on.

The Abbasids obtained the secret of papermaking from Chinese prisoners. See Wikipedia Islam during the Tang dynasty It is also suggested that the Abbasid army brought back sugar cane from northern India. These fast ships had the strength to survive ocean crossings while having a draft of as little as 50cm 20 inches , allowing navigation in very shallow water".

Short at Hurstwic , Massachussets. The Ghana Empire or Wagadou Empire in West Africa existed from before about until about The history of hourglass shaped talking drums can be traced back to the Ghana Empire. They may have migrated from the Sahara into the forested region around the 11th century.

Microscope slides reveal that thee York coprolite came from someone who mainly ate meat and bread and who was infested with worms. British Library Woodblock printing made the written word available to many more people during the Tang Dynasty to in China Wikipedia: History of printing in East Asia. Killed by the Great Heathen Army. Greenstead Church booklet published about When he stoutly refused he was tied to a tree, shot with arrows and afterwards beheaded The body of the martyred King was enshrined at Bedriceworth, modern Bury St Edmunds, and was greatly revered".

See coins - - - - Saint George. The Chronicle was begun in Alfred's reign about and one copy continued to be updated to Marc Bloch's Feudal Society covers the period roughly from the middle of the ninth century to the first decades of the 13th in western and central Europe.

He divides the period into a first and second feudal age, separated by "profound and widespread changes" towards the middle of the eleventh century The High Middle Ages was the period of European history around the 11th , 12th , and 13th centuries.

Wikipedia The two centuries from to are a critical turning point in the Saint-Simonian system of history between the epoch with "theological" ideas and a feudal organisation of society and that with positive, scientific ideas and an industrial social organisation. On the way back in they may have rested in a Saxon timber church at Greensted.

The timber nave wall of the present church may be the oldest surviving wooden church in the world, but counting the rings gives a date after In ships like this the last succesful invaders crossed the channel] See French - Latin - Old English. One of the reasons for this was that quill pens began to be cut at an angle, making it easier to produce these shapes.

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This includes a history of the Society and via library and archives information on its members. Baal meant lord, master, owner or husband in Semitic languages.

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