With a population of over million in , Mexico ranks as the 11th most populated country in the world. It is the most populous Spanish-speaking country and the third-most populous in the Americas after United States and Brazil. Throughout most of the twentieth century Mexico's population was characterized by rapid growth. Mexico. Generalissimo of the North American Armies 16 Sep - 21 Mar Miguel Gregorio Antonio Hidalgo y (b. - d. ).
Alrededor del 68 Autour de 68, La Cause du Peuple. Spock on Vietnam ; Dr. Benjamin Spock in Berkeley. Grabada en el Berkeley Community Theater, 4 de febrero de Talk on the charges against Spock for conspiring to aid, abet, and counsel young men to resist the draft.
Elecciones presidenciales en Francia: Sarkozy promete enterrar Mayo del Vistas Leer Editar Ver historial. En otros proyectos Wikimedia Commons. The following table is a compilation of when possible official nationwide surveys conducted by the Mexican government who have attempted to quantify different Mexican ethnic groups. Given that for the most part each ethnic group was estimated by different surveys, with different methodologies and years apart rather than on a single comprehensive racial census, some groups could overlap with others and be overestimated or underestimated.
Of all the ethnic groups that have been surveyed, Mestizos are notably absent, which is likely due the label's fluid and subjective definition, which complicates its precise quantification. As example the intercensal survey considered as Indigenous Mexicans and Afro-Mexicans altogether individuals who self-identified as "part Indigenous" or "part African" thus, said people technically would be Mestizos.
Similarly, White Mexicans were quantified based on physical traits and appearance, thus technically a Mestizo with a percentage of Indigenous ancestry that was low enough to not affect his or her primarily European phenotype was considered to be white. Finally the remaining ethnicities, for being of a rather low number or being faiths have more permissive classification criteria, therefore a Mestizo could claim to belong to one of them by practicing the faith, or by having an ancestor who belonged to said ethnicities.
Nonetheless, contemporary sociologists and historians agree that, given that the concept of "race" has a psychological foundation rather than a biological one and to society's eyes a Mestizo with a high percentage of European ancestry is considered "white" and a Mestizo with a high percentage of Indigenous ancestry is considered "Indian", a person that identifies with a given ethnic group should be allowed to, even if biologically it doesn't completely belong to that group.
Languages in Mexico by percentage: Spanish is the de facto official language in Mexico being spoken by The indigenous language with the greatest number of speakers is Nahuatl 1,, speakers in or 1. After half a century of rural-to-urban migration, in Mexico City and other major cities large districts and sections use both written and spoken Amerindian languages. Later, this policy changed, and since the s the government has sponsored bilingual and intercultural education in all indigenous communities.
This policy has mainly been successful in large communities with a significant number of speakers. While some languages, with less than 1, speakers, are still facing extinction. The second most spoken language in Mexico, however, is English. It is used extensively at border areas, tourist centers and large metropolitan areas, a phenomenon arguably caused by the economic integration of North American under the North American Free Trade Agreement NAFTA and the immigration phenomenon and the return of workers and their families from the United States.
Among the languages brought to the country by immigrants are the Venetian of Chipilo , and Mennonite Low German spoken in Durango and Chihuahua. Although some of these may have a greater number of speakers than the national languages, they are not recognized by the government.
The Constitution of Mexico grants Mexican nationality based on birth and naturalization. Mexican laws regarding nationality by birth are very open. Mexican nationality by birth is granted to: Mexican nationality by naturalization is granted to: Religion in Mexico by percentage: The Mexican population is predominantly Catholic The states with the highest percentage of professing Catholics are central states, namely Guanajuato The average annual growth of Catholic believers from to was 1.
The State does not support or provide any economic resource to the Church as is the case in Spain and Argentina ,  and the Church cannot participate in public education no public school can be operated by a Catholic order, although they can participate in private education. Moreover, the government nationalized all the Church's properties some of which were given back in the s , and priests lost the right to vote or to be voted for although in the s they regained the right to vote.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Demographics of Mexico Population of Mexico, — France Germany Spain United Kingdom. Metropolitan areas of Mexico. Indigenous peoples of Mexico. Mexicans of European descent. Spanish and indigenous languages 5. Retrieved 17 December Retrieved 29 August Retrieved June 25, Archived from the original on Our World in Data.
Archived from the original PDF on 29 July Retrieved 15 January The Mexican reverse migration". The New York Times. Retrieved May 5, Retrieved 5 November Archived from the original PDF on 15 October Archived from the original on 26 October Retrieved September 19, Academic investigation in Spanish. University of the State of Mexico. Archived from the original PDF on 22 October Retrieved 10 June The Idea of Race in Latin America: University of Texas Press.
Retrieved 17 July Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity and Society. In New Spain, there was no strict idea of race something that continued in Mexico. The Indians that had lost their connections with their communities and had adopted different cultural elements could "pass" and be considered mestizos. The same applied to Blacks and castas. Retrieved 1 October Archived at the Wayback Machine. Being Indian in Hueyapan: Archived from the original on 18 January Retrieved 10 December Retrieved 22 December Retrieved on 28 April Archived from the original PDF on Archived from the original on 23 August Retrieved 19 July Retrieved 12 September Acatzingo, " , Scielo , Jujuy, November Retrieved on 1 July Retrieved August 23, Penguin Random house Grupo Editorial Mexico.
Retrieved February 23, Retrieved on 9 May Retrieved May 18, Archived from the original PDF on 27 March The total percentage of Mexico's population who is indigenous varies considerably depending of the criteria used by the government on its censuses: Many practice subsistence agriculture and regulate some internal issues under customary law. Similarly to Mestizo and Indigenous peoples, estimations for the percentage of European-descended Mexicans within the Mexican population vary considerably: According to 20th- and 21st-century academics, large scale intermixing between European immigrants and native Indigenous peoples would produce a Mestizo group which would become the overwhelming majority of Mexico's population by the time of the Mexican revolution.
The Afro-Mexican population 1,, individuals as of [update]  is an ethnic group made up of descendants of Colonial-era slaves and recent immigrants of sub-Saharan African descent. Mexico had an active slave trade during the colonial period and some , Africans were taken there, primarily in the 17th century. The creation of a national Mexican identity, especially after the Mexican Revolution, emphasized Mexico's indigenous and European past; it passively eliminated the African ancestors and contributions.
Evidence of this long history of intermarriage with Mestizo and indigenous Mexicans is also expressed in the fact that in the inter-census, It was also reported that 9. During the early 20th century, a substantial number of Arabs mostly Christians  began arriving from the crumbling Ottoman Empire. The largest group were the Lebanese and an estimated , Mexicans have some Lebanese ancestry.
During the colonial era Asians were termed Chino regardless of ethnicity , and arrived as merchants, artisans and slaves. The first census in Mexico then known as New Spain that included an ethnic classification was the census.
Also known as the Revillagigedo census. Most of its original datasets have reportedly been lost, thus most of what is known about it nowadays comes from essays and field investigations made by academics who had access to the census data and used it as reference for their works such as Prussian geographer Alexander von Humboldt.
The total population ranged from 3,, to 6,, In recent times the Mexican government has decided to conduct new ethnic surveys and censuses, also widening the criteria to classify the ethnicities who were already considered such as the Indigenous Mexican one, which was previously reserved to people who lived in indigenous communities or spoke an indigenous language.
Out of all the ethnic groups that have recently been surveyed, that of Mestizos is notably absent, which may be consequence of the ethnic label's fluid and subjective definition, which complicates a precise calculation as well the tendency that Mexicans have to identify people with "static" ethnic labels rather than "fluid" ones. In the early s, around , Mexicans lived abroad, which increased sevenfold by the s to 4.
Spanish is the de facto national language spoken by the vast majority of the population, making Mexico the world's most populous Hispanophone country. The letters b and v have the same pronunciation as well. Words of foreign origin also maintain their original spelling such as whisky and film, as opposed to güisqui and filme as the Royal Academy suggests.
The federal government officially recognizes sixty-eight linguistic groups and varieties of indigenous languages. Aside from indigenous languages, there are several minority languages spoken in Mexico due to international migration such as Low German by the 80,strong Menonite population , primarily settled in the northern states, fuelled by the tolerance of the federal government towards this community by allowing them to set their own educational system compatible with their customs and traditions.
It is estimated that nearly 24 million, or around a fifth of the population, study the language through public schools, private institutions or self-access channels. The 92,,  Catholics of Mexico constitute in absolute terms the second largest Catholic community in the world, after Brazil 's.
The s was marked by a religious conflict known as the Cristero War , in which many peasants encouraged by the clergy clashed with the federal government that had decided to enforce the constitutional laws of Among the measures contemplated by the Magna Carta were the suppression of the monastic orders and the cancellation of all religious worship.
The war ended with an agreement between the parties in conflict Catholic Church and State , by means of which the respective fields of action were defined.
Until the middle of the s, the Mexican constitution did not recognize the existence of any religious group. In , a law was enacted whereby the State granted them legal status as "religious associations".
This fact allowed the reestablishment of diplomatic relations with the Holy See , to which the Mexican State did not recognize as a political entity. According to the figures of INEGI , most Mexicans declare themselves Christian and most Catholics almost 93 million adherents according to the census of The denominations Pentecostal also have an important presence, especially in the cities of the border and in the indigenous communities.
In fact, Pentecostal churches together have more than 1. The situation changes when the different Pentecostal denominations are considered as separate entities. Migratory phenomena have led to the proliferation of different aspects of Christianity, including branches Protestants , Eastern Catholic Churches and Eastern Orthodox Church.
According to Jacobo Grinberg-Zylberbaum in texts edited by the National Autonomous University of Mexico , it is remarkable the survival of magic-religious rituals of the old indigenous groups, not only in the current indigenous people but in the mestizos and whites that make up the Mexican rural and urban society.
There is often a syncretism between shamanism and the Catholic tradition. Although Mexico was also a recipient of black slaves from Africa in the 16th century, the apogee of these cults is relatively new. In certain regions, the profession of a creed other than the Catholic is seen as a threat to community unity.
It is argued that the Catholic religion is part of the ethnic identity, and that the Protestants are not willing to participate in the traditional customs and practices the tequio or community work, participation in the festivities and similar issues.
The refusal of the Protestants is because their religious beliefs do not allow them to participate in the cult of images. In extreme cases, tension between Catholics and Protestants has led to the expulsion or even murder of Protestants in several villages. A similar argument was presented by a committee of anthropologists to request the government of the Republic to expel the Summer Linguistic Institute SIL , in the year , which was accused of promoting the division of indigenous peoples by translating the Bible into vernacular languages and evangelizing in a Protestant creed that threatened the integrity of popular cultures.
The Mexican government paid attention to the call of the anthropologists and canceled the agreement that had held with the SIL. Conflicts have also occurred in other areas of social life. For example, given that Jehovah's Witnesses are prohibited from surrendering honors to national symbols something that is done every Monday in Mexican public schools , children who have been educated in that religion were expelled from public schools.
This type of problem can only be solved with the intervention of the National Commission of Human Rights , and not always with favorable results for children. The impact of the Catholic religion in Mexico has also caused a fusion of elements.
Beyond churches and religious denominations, a phenomenon persists in Mexico that some anthropologists and sociologists call "popular religion", that is, religion as the practice and understanding of the people. In Mexico, the main component is the Catholic religion, to which elements of other beliefs have been added, already of pre-Hispanic, African or Asian origin. In general, popular religiosity is viewed with bad eyes by institutionally structured religions. One of the most exemplary cases of popular religiosity is the cult of Holy Dead Santa Muerte.
The Catholic hierarchy insists on describing it as a satanic cult. However, most of the people who profess this cult declare themselves to be Catholic believers, and consider that there is no contradiction between the tributes they offer to the White Child and the adoration of God. Other examples are the representations of the Passion of Christ and the celebration of Day of the Dead , which take place within the framework of the Catholic Christian imaginary, but under a very particular reinterpretation of its protagonists.
In the census 18, Mexicans reported belonging to an Eastern religion ,  a category which includes a tiny Buddhist population. Until the twentieth century, Mexico was an overwhelmingly rural country, with rural women's status defined within the context of the family and local community. With urbanization beginning in the sixteenth century, following the Spanish conquest of the Aztec empire , cities have provided economic and social opportunities not possible within rural villages.
As of [update] , Mexico has the 16th highest rate of homicides committed against women in the world. Mexican culture reflects the complexity of the country's history through the blending of indigenous cultures and the culture of Spain , imparted during Spain's year occupation of Mexico.
Exogenous cultural elements have been incorporated into Mexican culture as time has passed. The Porfirian era el Porfiriato , in the last quarter of the 19th century and the first decade of the 20th century, was marked by economic progress and peace. Since that time, as accentuated during the Mexican Revolution , cultural identity has had its foundation in the mestizaje , of which the indigenous i. Amerindian element is the core. The painting is one of the oldest arts in Mexico. The cave painting in Mexican territory is about years old, and has been manifested in the caves of the Baja California Peninsula.
Pre-Hispanic Mexico is present in buildings and caves, in Aztec codices , in ceramics , in garments, etc. The mural painting had an important flowering during the 16th century, the same in religious constructions as in houses of lineage; such is the case of the convents of Acolman , Actopan , Huejotzingo , Tecamachalco and Zinacantepec.
It is said that they were mainly indigenous painters led by friars who made them. For a time it was believed that the first European painter living in New Spain was Rodrigo de Cifuentes , an apocryphal artist who even came to be attributed works such as The Baptism of the Caciques de Tlaxcala , painting of the main altarpiece of the Convent of San Francisco in Tlaxcala.
Among the native painters was Marcos Aquino. The religiosity of the Novohispanos "New-spanish" made that the painting was important for the evangelization of the society, the friars realized the graphic skills of the natives, who enriched the baroque and mannerist style.
The painting of the 19th century had a very marked romantic influence, landscapes and portraits were the greatest expression of this era. Hermenegildo Bustos is one of the most appreciated painters of the historiography of Mexican art. The Oaxacan School quickly gained fame and prestige, diffusion of an ancestral and modern culture, freedom of design is observed in relation to the color and texture of the canvases and murals as a period of transition between the 20th century and the 21st century.
Some of the most outstanding painters in the 21st century current painters: She studied painting in Beijing. Her work, of marked oriental influence, recalls the cut paper figures of Mexico and China, mixing them with a rich chromatic range; Eliseo Garza Aguilar , painter and performer considered among the leading exponents of the provocative and reflective art of the Third Millennium; in search of a critical response from the spectators, he combines his pictorial work in the performances with theatrical histrionics; Pilar Goutas , a painter who uses oil on amate support, with strong influence from Jackson Pollock and Chinese calligraphy ; Rafael Torres Correa settles his residence in Mexico in and joins the contemporary art workshop "La Polilla" in Guadalajara , and performs various plastic and scenographic projects.
Throughout history several prominent painters of different nationalities have expressed in their works the face of Mexico. From the Spanish conquest, civil and religious sculpture is worked by indigenous artists, with guidance from teachers of the peninsula, so some pre-Hispanic features are shown.
Since the 17th century, white and mestizo sculptors have created works with a marked influence of European classicism. Romanticism tended to break the strict norms and models of classicism, as it pursued ideas influenced by realism and nationalism. The religious sculpture was reduced to a sporadic imagery, while the secular sculpture continued in portraits and monumental art of a civic nature.
Between and the predominant themes were, successively: The transcendent was to introduce civil reasons, the first national types and glimpses of a current of self-expression.
The presence of the human being in the Mexican territory has left important archaeological findings of great importance for the explanation of the habitat of primitive man and contemporary man. The Mesoamerican civilizations managed to have great stylistic development and proportion on the human and urban scale, the form was evolving from simplicity to aesthetic complexity; in the north of the country the adobe and stone architecture is manifested, the multifamily housing as we can see in Casas Grandes ; and the troglodyte dwelling in caves of the Sierra Madre Occidental.
With the arrival of the Spaniards, architectural theories of the Greco-Roman order with Arab influences were introduced. Due to the process of evangelization , when the first monastic temples and monasteries were built, their own models were projected, such as the mendicant monasteries , unique in their type in architecture.
The interaction between Spaniards and natives gave rise to artistic styles such as the so-called tequitqui from Nahuatl: Years later the baroque and mannerism were imposed in large cathedrals and civil buildings, while rural areas are built haciendas or stately farms with Mozarabic tendencies. Romanticists from a past seen through archeology show images of medieval Europe, Islamic and pre-Hispanic Mexico in the form of architectural elements in the construction of international exhibition pavilions looking for an identity typical of the national culture.
The art nouveau , and the art deco were styles introduced into the design of the Palacio de Bellas Artes to mark the identity of the Mexican nation with Greek-Roman and pre-Hispanic symbols. The emergence of the new Mexican architecture was born as a formal order of the policies of a nationalist state that sought modernity and the differentiation of other nations.
Juan O'Gorman was one of the first environmental architects in Mexico, developing the "organic" theory, trying to integrate the building with the landscape within the same approaches of Frank Lloyd Wright. The Jalisco School was a proposal of those socio-political movements that the country demanded.
Mexican architecture is a cultural phenomenon born of the ideology of nationalist governments of the 20th century, which was shaping the identity image by its colorful and variegated ornamental elements inherited from ancestral cultures, classical and monumental forms and, subsequently, the incorporation of modernism and cutting-edge international trends. In ethnic and cultural terms, Lo mexicano corresponds only to everything that is referred to the Aztec culture; therefore, ethnically Mexicans are those who are also known as Nahuas and whose language is Nahuatl.
In legal terms and in accordance with the Constitution , Mexican is a citizen born within the territory of the United Mexican States or whoever has decided adopt the Mexican citizenship. The Mexican could be what characterizes the being of Mexico and its people; however, it is an ethnic concept that only defines the mestizo identity that had been related for a long time and that is limited with respect to the ethnic diversity of the country.
It is an intellectual construction product of the approaches of specialists to the cultural reality of the country. In trying to capture in a single figure the multicultural reality of Mexico, the result of the intellectual analysis has produced a series of stereotypes and truisms about what it is to be a Mexican. This discourse about The Mexican has been used in the political field to legitimize power, and at the same time it is imposed on the population of the country as a fact beyond all doubt.
The intellectual construction of the mestizo is in dialogue with the triumph of revolutionary nationalism, which was born after the Mexican Revolution. In the reflection on the subject the character of the Mexican, the mexicanity, the definition of a Mexican have participated, among others: Mexican literature has its antecedents in the literatures of the indigenous settlements of Mesoamerica.
The most well known prehispanic poet is Nezahualcoyotl. Modern Mexican literature was influenced by the concepts of the Spanish colonialization of Mesoamerica. Diego Rivera, the most well-known figure of Mexican muralism, painted the Man at the Crossroads at the Rockefeller Center in New York City, a huge mural that was destroyed the next year because of the inclusion of a portrait of Russian communist leader Lenin.
Mesoamerican architecture is mostly noted for its pyramids which are the largest such structures outside of Ancient Egypt. Spanish Colonial architecture is marked by the contrast between the simple, solid construction demanded by the new environment and the Baroque ornamentation exported from Spain. Mexico, as the center of New Spain has some of the most renowned buildings built in this style. Mexican films from the Golden Age in the s and s are the greatest examples of Latin American cinema, with a huge industry comparable to the Hollywood of those years.
Mexican films were exported and exhibited in all of Latin America and Europe. Some Mexican actors have achieved recognition as Hollywood stars. There are three major television companies in Mexico that own the primary networks and broadcast covering all nation, Televisa , TV Azteca and Imagen Television. Televisa is also the largest producer of Spanish-language content in the world and also the world's largest Spanish-language media network. Grupo Multimedios is another media conglomerate with Spanish-language broadcasting in Mexico, Spain, and the United States.
Mexican society enjoys a vast array of music genres, showing the diversity of Mexican culture. Mexico has the largest media industry in Latin America, producing Mexican artists who are famous in Central and South America and parts of Europe, especially Spain. In , Mexico presented the candidature of its gastronomy for World Heritage Site of UNESCO, being the first occasion in which a country had presented its gastronomic tradition for this purpose.
The origin of the current Mexican cuisine is established during the Spanish colonization, being a mixture of the foods of Spain with native indigenous ingredients. Other Indigenous products are many beans. Similarly, some cooking techniques used today are inherited from pre-Hispanic peoples, such as the nixtamalization of corn, the cooking of food in ovens at ground level, grinding in molcajete and metate.
With the Spaniards came the pork, beef and chicken meats; peppercorn , sugar, milk and all its derivatives, wheat and rice, citrus fruits and another constellation of ingredients that are part of the daily diet of Mexicans.
From this meeting of millennia old two culinary traditions, were born pozole , mole sauce , barbacoa and tamale is in its current forms, the chocolate , a large range of breads , tacos , and the broad repertoire of Mexican street foods. Mexico's most popular sport is association football.
It is commonly believed that football was introduced in Mexico by Cornish miners at the end of the 19th century. By a five-team league had emerged with a strong British influence. The Mexican professional baseball league is named the Liga Mexicana de Beisbol.
While usually not as strong as the United States, the Caribbean countries and Japan, Mexico has nonetheless achieved several international baseball titles. Mexico has had several players signed by Major League teams, the most famous of them being Dodgers pitcher Fernando Valenzuela. In , Mexico's basketball team won the Americas Basketball Championship and qualified for the Basketball World Cup where it reached the playoffs.
Bullfighting is a popular sport in the country, and almost all large cities have bullrings. Mexico is an international power in professional boxing at the amateur level, several Olympic boxing medals have also been won by Mexico. The current coat of arms of Mexico Spanish: It depicts a Mexican golden eagle perched on a prickly pear cactus devouring a rattlesnake. Since the early s, Mexico entered a transitional stage in the health of its population and some indicators such as mortality patterns are identical to those found in highly developed countries like Germany or Japan.
Medical training is done mostly at public universities with much specializations done in vocational or internship settings. Some public universities in Mexico, such as the University of Guadalajara , have signed agreements with the U. Health care costs in private institutions and prescription drugs in Mexico are on average lower than that of its North American economic partners.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the federal republic in North America. For other uses, see Mexico disambiguation. None at federal level [b]. Spanish and 68 Amerindian languages . Pre-Columbian Mexico and Mesoamerican chronology. Spanish conquest of Mexico. Mexican War of Independence. A jaguar at the Chapultepec Zoo.
The zoo is known for its success in breeding programs of threatened species. Federal government of Mexico. Law enforcement in Mexico. Foreign relations of Mexico. Economic history of Mexico. Electricity sector in Mexico. The Isthmus of Tehuantepec is the region of Mexico with the highest capacity for wind energy. History of science and technology in Mexico. Water supply and sanitation in Mexico.
Metropolitan areas of Mexico and List of cities in Mexico. Religion in Mexico census  Roman Catholicism.
This section needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. September Learn how and when to remove this template message. Many codices made both during Pre-hispanic Mexico and in the Spanish colony are preserved. The art of the Colonial Mexico center of New Spain developed a large number of painters born in Mexico. Now these works are preserved in museums in many cities of Mexico.
A cultural expression starting in the s created by a group of intellectual Mexican painters after the Mexican Revolution , reinforced by the Great Depression and the First World War. Mexican literature and Mesoamerican literature. Mexican television and List of newspapers in Mexico. The first chocolate version liquid was made by indigenous people in present-day Mexico, and was exported from Mexico to Europe after the Spanish conquest.
Mole sauce , which has dozens of varieties across the Republic, is seen as a symbol of Mexicanidad  and is considered Mexico's national dish. Coat of arms of Mexico. Retrieved July 18, Retrieved March 4, Archived from the original PDF on May 11, Retrieved August 14, Archived from the original on December 10, Retrieved December 17, Retrieved May 12, Retrieved November 9, Retrieved 14 September Retrieved November 7, Archived from the original on December 2, Retrieved July 17, Archived from the original on March 26, Retrieved March 26, Archived from the original on January 8, Retrieved November 25, US Department of State.
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The most notable attractions are the Mesoamerican ruins, cultural festivals, colonial cities, nature reserves and the beach resorts.
Outline Index Book Category Portal. The period, known as the Porfiriato, was characterized by economic stability and growth, significant foreign investment and influence, investments in the arts and sciences and an expansion of the railroad network and telecommunications.