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Since circumcision in China does not have the weight of pre-existing traditions as it does elsewhere in the Muslim world, circumcision rates among Hui are much lower than among other Muslim communities where the procedure is nearly universal.
This long residence and mixing in China, led the Hui to adopt names typical of their Han neighbors; however, some common Hui names are actually Chinese renderings of common Muslim i. Arabic , Persian , and Central Asian names.
For instance, surname "Ma" for " Muhammad ". Hui people usually have a Chinese name and a Muslim name in Arabic , although the Chinese name is most-used. Some Hui do not remember their Muslim names. Hui people who adopt foreign names may not use their Muslim names. His father was Muslim General Bai Chongxi , who had his children adopt western names.
Hui people commonly believe that their surnames originated as "Sinified" forms of their foreign Muslim ancestors some time during the Yuan or Ming eras. Some texts were translated from Arabic. A new edition of a book by Ma Te-hsin , called Ho-yin Ma Fu-ch'u hsien-sheng i-shu Ta hua tsung kuei Ssu tien yaohui , first printed in , was reprinted in by Ma Fuxiang. General Ma Fuxiang invested in new editions of Confucian and Islamic texts. Hui Bu Xinjiang fu. In "The Chinese repository, Volume 13" was published, including an account of an Englishman who stayed in the Chinese city of Ningbo , where he visited the local mosque.
The Hui running the mosque was from Shandong and descended from residents of the Arabian city of Medina. He was able to read and speak Arabic with ease, but was illiterate in Chinese, although he was born in China and spoke Chinese.
Hui marriages resemble typical Chinese marriages except that traditional Chinese rituals are not used. Endogamy is practiced by Hui, who mainly marry among themselves rather than with Muslims from other sects.
However, the Hui Na family in Ningxia is known to practice both parallel and cross cousin marriage. Intermarriage generally involves a Han Chinese converting to Islam when marrying a Hui, and marriage without conversion only takes place rarely. In Hui discourse, marriage between a Hui woman and a Han man is not allowed unless the Han converts to Islam, although it occurred repeatedly in Eastern China.
This practice helped increase the population of Hui. Zhao nuxu is a practice where the son-in-law moves in with the wife's family. Some marriages between Han and Hui are conducted this way. The husband does not need to convert, but the wife's family follows Islamic customs. No census data documents this type of marriage, reporting only cases in which the wife moves in with the groom's family.
They had two children who became Muslim. Steles in Han and Hui villages record this story and Hui and Han members of the Lineage celebrate at the ancestral temple together.
He married a Persian or an Arab girl, and brought her back to Quanzhou. He then converted to Islam. The Han Chinese groom and his family were only converted to Islam after the marriage by their Muslim relatives. An argument between a Han Chinese and his Muslim wife led to these Muslims getting massacred, when she threatened that the Muslims from Topa would attack Tankar and give a signal to their co-religionists to rise up and open the gates by burning the temples atop the hills.
The husband reported this to an official and the next day the Muslims were massacred with the exception of a few Muslim girls who were married off to Han Chinese. Hui men marrying Han women and Han men who marry Hui women achieve above average education.
Hui have supported modern education and reform. Hui such as Hu Songshan and the Ma Clique warlords promoted western, modern secular education. Elite Hui received both Muslim and Confucian education. Hui people refused to follow the May Fourth Movement. Instead, they taught both western subjects such as science along with traditional Confucian literature and Classical Chinese, along with Islamic education and Arabic.
Hui warlord Ma Bufang built a girls' school in Linxia that taught modern secular subjects. Hui have had female Imams, called Nu Ahong for centuries. They are the world's only female Imams. They guide females in prayer but are not allowed to lead prayers.
Muslims have served extensively in the Chinese military for a long time in Chinese history, as both officials and soldiers, often filling the more distinguished military positions. They remained in China, and some of them become ancestors of the Hui people. Many Hui soldiers of the Ming dynasty then settled in Yunnan and Hunan provinces. The Qing administration also preferred to use Hui in Xinjiang as police. Qing Muslim General Zuo Baogui — , from Shandong province, was killed in Pingyang in Korea by Japanese cannon fire in while defending the city, where a memorial to him stands.
Military service continued into the Republic of China. After the Kuomintang party took power, Hui participation in the military reached new levels.
Qinghai and Ningxia were created out of Gansu province, and the Kuomintang appointed Hui Generals as military Governors of all three provinces. They became known as the Ma Clique. Many Muslim Salar joined the army in the Republic era; they and Dongxiang who have joined the army are described as being given "eating rations" meaning military service.
The Chinese government appointed Ma Fuxiang as military governor of Suiyuan. Ma Fuxiang commented on the willingness for Hui people to become martyrs in Battle see Martyrdom in Islam , saying:. But they know the meaning of fidelity, and if I say 'do this, although it means death,' they cheerfully obey". The Japanese planned to invade Ningxia from Suiyuan in and create a Hui puppet state. In addition, let us reinforce our unity and participate in the twice more difficult task of supporting a defensive war and promoting religion We hope that ahongs and the elite will initiate a movement of prayer during Ramadan and implement group prayer to support our intimate feeling toward Islam.
A sincere unity of Muslims should be developed to contribute power towards the expulsion of Japan. Ahong is the Mandarin Chinese word for Imam. During the war against Japan, the Imams supported Muslim resistance, calling for Muslims to participate in the fight against Japan, claiming that casualties would become a shaheed martyr.
After the Communist victory, and evacuation of the Kuomintang to Taiwan, Hui people continued to serve in the military.
His brother, Ma Buqing remained a military General on Taiwan. Many members of the Hui Ma Clique were Kuomintang. A Christian missionary in took a picture of a Muslim meat restaurant in Hankow that had Arabic and Chinese lettering indicating that it was Halal fit for Muslim consumption. It had two Kuomintang party symbols on it.
Most were Hokkien -speaking coolies and merchants originating from Fujian. The colonial British welfare system was commissioned according to language groups, so the Hui were classed as Hokkien. The small number of Hui may have become assimilated into mainstream Chinese society and local Muslim populations. The exact Hui population is unclear today as many families left Islam before independence. In official census figures gave the number of Muslim Chinese in Malaysia as 57, but most were Han converts.
Both Muslim and other Chinese resented the way foreigners handled Chinese affairs, rather than religion. In the military, imbalances in promotion and wealth were other motives for holding foreigners in poor regard. The Dungan and Panthay revolts were set off by racial antagonism and class warfare, rather than religion.
The Hui people have had a long presence in Qinghai and Gansu, or what Tibetans call Amdo , although Tibetans have historically dominated local politics.
The situation was reversed in when the Hui general Ma Bufang inherited the governorship of Qinghai, stacking his government with Hui and Salar and excluding Tibetans. In his power base in Qinghai's northeastern Haidong Prefecture , Ma compelled many Tibetans to convert to Islam and acculturate. Tensions also mounted when Hui started migrating into Lhasa in the s. On February , Tibetans rioted against Hui, destroying Hui-owned shops and restaurants. Tensions with Uyghurs arose because Qing and Republican Chinese authorities used Hui troops and officials to dominate the Uyghurs and crush Uyghur revolts.
Many Hui Muslim civilians were killed by Uyghur rebel troops in the Kizil massacre In , the Song emperor, Shen-tsung Shenzong , invited a group of 5, young Arabs, under the leadership of Amir Sayyid So-fei-er this name being mentioned in the Chinese source of Bukhara, to settle in China. This group had helped the emperor in his war with the newly established Liao Empire Khitan in northeastern China.
Shen-zong gave the prince an honrary title, and his men were encouraged to settle in the war-devasted sic areas in northeastern China between Kaifeng, the capital of the Sung, and Yenching Yanjing today's Peking or Beijing in order to create a buffer zone between the weaker Chinese and the aggressive Liao. In , another group of more than 10, Arab men and women on horseback are said to have arrived in China to join So-fei-er.
So-fei-er was not only the leader of the Muslims in his province, but he acquired the reputation also of being the founder and "father" of the Muslim community in China. Sayyid So-fei-er discovered that Arabia and Islam were. For instance, in the early years of the Hongwu Emperor's reign in the Ming Dynasty ' His Majesty ordered to have mosques built in Xijing and Nanjing [the capital cities], and in southern Yunnan, Fujian and Guangdong. His Majesty also personally wrote baizizan [a eulogy] in praise of the Prophet's virtues'.
Mosques built by imperial decree raised the social position of Islam, and assistance from upper-class Muslims helped to sustain religious sites in certain areas. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Hui disambiguation.
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He was able to read and speak Arabic with ease, but was illiterate in Chinese, although he was born in China and spoke Chinese.
By contrast Tibetan Buddhists and Catholics suffered restrictions and censure in Beijing.