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Headwaters Family Visit Centre- Volunteers Needed. The Headwaters Family Visit Centre provides a safe, neutral and child focused setting for visits and exchanges between children and non-residential parent or another adult such as a grandparent. The edition of the Airport Show is to be held under the patronage of Sheikh Ahmed bin Saeed Al Maktoum, president of DCAA, chairman of Dubai Airports and chairman and chief executive of Emirates Airline and Group, from May 7 to 9.

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This superficially impressive list of units overstates the actual capability of the armed forces at the time. Apart from privileged formations such as the Presidential Division and the 31st Airborne Brigade, most units were poorly trained, divided and so badly paid that they regularly resorted to looting. What operational abilities the armed forces had were gradually destroyed by politicisation of the forces, tribalisation, and division of the forces, included purges of suspectedly disloyal groups, intended to allow Mobutu to divide and rule.

Much of the origins of the recent conflict in what is now the Democratic Republic of the Congo stems from the turmoil following the Rwandan Genocide of , which then led to the Great Lakes refugee crisis.

When the militias rebelled, backed by Rwanda, the FAZ, weakened as is noted above, proved incapable of mastering the situation and preventing the overthrow of Mobutu in Allying themselves with the Sudanese government which was fighting its own civil war at the time, these FAZ troops were destroyed by the Sudan People's Liberation Army during a major ambush near Yei in March Tanzania sent six hundred military advisors to train Kabila's new army in May Prunier says that the instructors were still at the Kitona base when the Second Congo War broke out, and had to be quickly returned to Tanzania.

Prunier said "South African aircraft carried out the evacuation after a personal conversation between President Mkapa and not-yet-president Thabo Mbeki. We are careful so that the true masters of the army are not known. Please, let us drop the matter. On 23 February , a mostly Banyamulenge unit mutiniued at Bukavu after its officers tried to disperse the soldiers into different units spread all around the Congo. The declaration of the 10th Brigade's commander, former DSP officer Jean-Pierre Ondekane , on 2 August that he no longer recognised Kabila as the state's president was one of the factors in the beginning of the Second Congo War.

The FAC performed poorly throughout the Second Congo War and "demonstrated little skill or recognisable military doctrine".

As well as providing expeditionary forces , these countries unsuccessfully attempted to retrain the DRC Army. North Korea and Tanzania also provided assistance with training.

During the first year of the war the Allied forces defeated the Rwandan force which had landed in Bas-Congo and the rebel forces south-west of Kinshasa and eventually halted the rebel and Rwandan offensive in the east of the DRC. These successes contributed to the Lusaka Ceasefire Agreement which was signed in July The first military region, Congolese state television reported, would consist of the two Kivu provinces, Orientale Province would form the second region, and Maniema and Kasai-Oriental provinces the third.

Kinshasa and Bas-Congo would form the seventh and eighth regions, respectively. This force was intended to support the FAC and national police but never became effective.

The Lusaka Ceasefire Agreement was not successful in ending the war, and fighting resumed in September The FAC's performance continued to be poor and both the major offensives the Government launched in ended in costly defeats. The defeats in are believed to have been the cause of President Kabila's assassination in January An intermediate mechanism for physical identification of the soldiers, and their origin, date of enrolment, and unit was also called for VII c.

A decision on which factions were to name chiefs of staff and military regional commanders was announced on 19 August as the first move in military reform, superimposed on top of the various groups of fighters, government and former rebels. Another report however says that the military region commanders were only nominated in January , and that the troop deployment on the ground did not change substantially until the year afterward. Kabila despatched 10, government troops to the east in response, launching an attack that was called "Operation Bima".

There was another major personnel reshuffle on 12 June John Numbi, a trusted member of Kabila's inner circle, was shifted from air force commander to Police Inspector General. General Jean-Claude Kifwa, commander of the Republican Guard, was appointed as a regional military commander.

Due to significant delays in the DDR and integration process, of the eighteen brigades, only seventeen have been declared operational, over two and a half years after the initial target date. Responding to the situation, the Congolese Minister of Defence presented a new defence reform master plan to the international community in February Essentially the three force tiers all had their readiness dates pushed back: Much of the east of the country remains insecure, however.

In the far northeast this is due primarily to the Ituri conflict. In the area around Lake Kivu , primarily in North Kivu , fighting continues among the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda and between the government FARDC and Laurent Nkunda 's troops, with all groups greatly exacerbating the issues of internal refugees in the area of Goma, the consequent food shortages, and loss of infrastructure from the years of conflict.

On 22 November , Gabriel Amisi Kumba was suspended from his position in the Forces Terrestres by president Joseph Kabila due to an inquiry into his alleged role in the sale of arms to various rebel groups in the eastern part of the country, which may have implicated the rebel group M The country had been in a state of civil war since , when the president was ousted by rebel groups.

In the process, they liberated over 20 villages and a mine from the control of two rebel groups, the Mai Mai Cheka and the Alliance for the Sovereign and Patriotic Congo.

In October the UN published a report announcing that the FARDC no longer employed child soldiers but was still listed under militaries that committed sexual violations against children. After a protracted firefight the troops suffered 5 dead along with 14 dead among the UN force. Jane's data from appears inaccurate; there is at least one ammunition plant in Katanga.

The Land Forces are distributed around ten military regions , up from the previous eight, following the ten provinces of the country.

There is also a central logistics base. It should be made clear also that Joseph Kabila does not trust the military; the Republican Guard is the only component he trusts. Major General John Numbi , former Air Force chief, now inspector general of police, ran a parallel chain of command in the east to direct the Eastern Congo offensive , Operation Umoja Wetu; the regular chain of command was by-passed.

Previously Numbi negotiated the agreement to carry out the mixage process with Laurent Nkunda. Wetshi said that all key military and security questions were handled in total secrecy by the President and other civil and military personalities trusted by him, such as John Numbi , Gabriel Amisi Kumba 'Tango Four' , Delphin Kahimbi , and others such as Kalev Mutond and Pierre Lumbi Okongo.

The available information on armed forces' Chiefs of Staff is incomplete and sometimes contradictory. Virtually all officers have now changed positions, but this list gives an outline of the structure in January In September , President Kabila reshuffled the command structure and in addition to military regions created three new 'defense zones' which would be subordinated directly to the general staff. The defense zones essentially created a new layer between the general staff and the provincial commanders.

The military regions themselves were reorganized and do not correspond with the ones that existed prior to the reshuffle. The reform plan adopted in envisaged the formation of eighteen integrated brigades through the brassage process as its first of three stages. Then they are sent to orientation centres, run by CONADER, where fighters take the choice of either returning to civilian society or remaining in the armed forces.

Those who choose to stay within the FARDC are then transferred to one of six integration centres for a day training course, which aims to build integrated formations out of factional fighters previously heavily divided along ethnic, political and regional lines.

The process has suffered severe difficulties due to construction delays, administration errors, and the amount of travel former combatants have to do, as the three stages' centres are widely separated. Following the first 18 integrated brigades, the second goal is the formation of a ready reaction force of two to three brigades, and finally, by when MONUC is anticipated to have withdrawn, the creation of a Main Defence Force of three divisions.

Amid the other difficulties in building new armed forces for the DRC, in early the integration and training process was distorted as the DRC government under Kabila attempted to use it to gain more control over the dissident general Laurent Nkunda.

Mixage brought multiple factions into composite brigades, but without the day retraining provided by brassage , and it seems that actually, the process was limited to exchanging battalions between the FAC and Nkunda brigades in North Kivu, without further integration. Due to Nkunda's troops having greater cohesion, Nkunda effectively gained control of all five brigades, which was not the intention of the DRC central government. The International Crisis Group says that "by 30 August [] Nkunda's troops had left the mixed brigades and controlled a large part of the Masisi and Rutshuru territories" of North Kivu.

Both formally integrated brigades and the non-integrated units continue to conduct arbitrary arrests, rapes, robbery, and other crimes [] and these human rights violations are "regularly" committed by both officers and members of the rank and file. Members of the Army also often strike deals to gain access to resources with the militias they are meant to be fighting.

The various brigades and other formations and units number at least , troops. Some non-integrated brigades have only men and are thus nothing more than a small battalion whereas some battalions may not even have the size of a normal company over a men. A number of outside donor countries are also carrying out separate training programmes for various parts of the Forces du Terrestres Land Forces.

The People's Republic of China has trained Congolese troops at Kamina in Katanga from at least to , [] and the Belgian government is training at least one "rapid reaction" battalion. When Kabila visited U. Bush in Washington D. The various international training programmes are not well integrated. Attempting to list the equipment available to the DRC's land forces is difficult; most figures are unreliable estimates based on known items delivered in the past.

The vehicles were specifically designed for reconnaissance and special operations. Two of the vehicles are a recently developed conversion to serve for medical field evacuation. In February President Joseph Kabila passed a decree which appointed the GR's commanding officer and "repealed any previous provisions contrary" to that decree. The GR, more than 10, strong the ICG said 10, to 15, in January , has better working conditions and is paid regularly, but still commits rapes and robberies in the vicinity of its bases.

In an effort to extend his personal control across the country, Joseph Kabila has deployed the GR at key airports, ostensibly in preparation for an impending presidential visit.

The GR is also supposed to undergo the integration process, but in January , only one battalion had been announced as having been integrated. By late the FDLR's strength however was estimated at 2, Finally there is a government paramilitary force, created in under President Laurent Kabila.

The National Service is tasked with providing the army with food and with training the youth in a range of reconstruction and developmental activities. President Kabila, in one of the few comments available, says National Service will provide a gainful activity for street children.

Obligatory civil service administered through the armed forces was also proposed under the Mobutu regime during the "radicalisation" programme of December — January ; the FAZ was opposed to the measure and the plan "took several months to die.

These Groups command five wings and nine squadrons , of which not all are operational. Foreign private military companies have reportedly been contracted to provide the DRC's aerial reconnaissance capability using small propeller aircraft fitted with sophisticated equipment. Jane's states that National Air Force of Angola fighter aircraft would be made available to defend Kinshasa if it came under attack.

Like the other services, the Congolese Air Force is not capable of carrying out its responsibilities. Few of the Air Force's aircraft are currently flyable or capable of being restored to service and it is unclear whether the Air Force is capable of maintaining even unsophisticated aircraft.

Moreover, Jane's states that the Air Force's Ecole de Pilotage is 'in near total disarray' though Belgium has offered to restart the Air Force's pilot training program. Before the downfall of Mobutu, a small navy operated on the Congo river. One of its installations was at the village of N'dangi near the presidential residence in Gbadolite. The port at N'dangi was the base for several patrol boats, helicopters and the presidential yacht.

It was initially placed under command of the MLC when the transition began,so the current situation is uncertain. The edition of Jane's Fighting Ships states that the Navy is organised into four commands, based at Matadi , near the coast; the capital Kinshasa , further up the Congo river; Kalemie , on Lake Tanganyika ; and Goma , on Lake Kivu.

Various sources also refer to numbered Naval Regions. Operations of the 1st Naval Region have been reported in Kalemie, [] the 4th near the northern city of Mbandaka , [] and the 5th at Goma. There are five other s as well as two Swiftships which are not currently operational, though some may be restored to service in the future. According to Jane's , the Navy also operates barges and small craft armed with machine guns. As of , the Navy on paper consisted of about 6, personnel and up to 23 patrol craft.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Not to be confused with Armed Forces of the Republic of the Congo. Mutiny of the Force Publique. Land Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo.

Republican Guard Democratic Republic of the Congo. Air Force of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. Navy of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. United States Central Intelligence Agency.

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De Witte, Ludo ; Wright, Ann Assisting international actors Security and justice reforms are often carried out with extensive support from international actors, either through bilateral donor assistance or in the framework of cooperation with multilateral organisations.

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