Intraindustrieller Handel

The Nature and Significance of Intra-industry Trade.

Weist ein Land innerhalb derselben Industrie sowohl Importe als auch Exporte auf, spricht man vom intraindustriellen Handel (engl.: intra industry trade, IIT). Intra-industrieel Nederland handelsland. Niet alleen import en export, maar ook veel doorvoer. Internationale handel is voor Nederland van groot belang. Daarom is de EU ook zo belangrijk. Bekijk de bron van Inter 1/3 Intra 2/3.

Newdeal Africa

Abstract. The Nature and Causes of Intra-Industry Trade: Back to the Comparative Advantage Explanations? The Case of Spain. — The aim of this paper is to contribute empirically to the knowledge of the nature and causes of intra-industry trade (IIT), distinguishing between vertical and horizontal IIT.

In African unity lies our collective strength, he said, arguing that with so many factors going for the continent, quality leadership and indigenous solutions are some of the critical ingredients required to buck the trend of underdevelopment and misery. Capping a brilliant address laced with very practical yet highly motivating action points at the lecture at the Accra International Conference Centre, Dr.

Manuel said with high growth, the experience of what works and what does not, plus the good luck of excellent commodity prices, Africa critically need leadership and a push for faster and further institutional reforms. We have the development lessons to build on, we have a rich African history of successes and unrequited promises to draw from. Increasingly, we have to think of a single Africa, and flatten the sovereign impediments to that single objective. It is worth reminding ourselves of our collective capability.

Whether we can persuade the dissenters? That solid performance, he said, was against the backdrop of a world economy that now in its sixth year of crisis, with no end in sight. This admission is included in the Declaration of the meeting of G20 Heads of State who met in St Petersburg just a few days ago. What is important, therefore, is that we raise the quality of both the interactions and commitments by African leaders for mutual and intra-African collaboration. Dr Manuel said the past decade offers an important learning opportunity, for during this decade-long boom for Africa, poverty rates fell, school enrolment increased, infrastructure investment spending quadrupled, exports increased and Africa received a growing share of foreign direct investment.

And these positive trends come on the back of improving governance and a much sounder approach to macroeconomic management. Africa, he said, can pat itself on the back, but at the same time, it needs to understand the contextual realities that gave rise to this growth. Despite the positive trends, it is not self-evident that Africa will prosper. Whether we succeed as a continent will depend on the reforms we introduce to sustain growth and make it more inclusive.

What we do next, may significantly alter the historical trajectory of our continent. We have to build on the growth of the past decade, and invest in industrialisation and our human capital to further expand and modernise our economies. Dwelling on a set of themes around which he said reforms must evolve, he said a renewed focus on regional integration; the institutional underpinnings for sustainable growth, including education, health care and the building and strengthening of accountable institutions of governance; a focus on the need for urban policy; and the need for significantly higher investment in infrastructure, and lastly, a set of issues relating to employment, economic diversification, including the need to industrialise are key.

Although Africa boasts of the production and possession of such great quantities of raw materials and minerals natural resources , value addition is still very limited, culminating in the paltry receipts for the export of these primary commodities. Africa has lots of natural resources. But unfortunately and sadly, most of them are exported in their raw form for processing in foreign countries.

The challenge has been that, there are no strong industries in the various African countries to add value to raw materials been produced and this result in a greater percentage of the raw materials on the continent being left to the advantage of foreign buyers who come to dictate and manipulate the prices of these materials as they so desire, to the great disadvantage of the African economy.

African countries can benefit from their raw materials only by adding value to their raw materials. The structures of the economies of African countries now are partly as a result of the colonial rule which was extractive in nature and the externally imposed structural adjustment programmes which had enormous negative effects on human capital development, technological accumulation, and the ability to manufacture value added commodities.

The colonial governments in the era of colonization established institutions, structures and infrastructure that were to help them transfer and transport raw materials from the African continent to Europe. The aim for the establishment of those institutions and structures were not to ensure the manufacturing of value added commodities from the resources on the African continent internally so Africans could have what they want through their local production and trade them among themselves.

On the contrary, all efforts were geared towards getting raw materials out of the continent to feed European industries. This has led to the existence of the situation today where African countries are good at exporting raw materials than semi-processed and processed goods. The good part of the story is the fact that the past is gone and that new measures can be put in place to achieve the level of economic development that Africa desires and deserves in the future.

New institutions can now be established and new structures can be put in place to create industrialized economies that will create a new economic history for Africa. Unlike it used to be previously, the world has experienced a highly widespread and extensive political and economic changes over the last half century and this has led to the reformation of global power structures, loosened old hegemonies and allowed new ones to emerge, reconfigured international relations among others which have led to serious rethinking of development paradigms.

These changes present a huge opportunity for Africa to emerge as a global economic power as current projections show—and present a serious challenge too. This advent requires leadership, vision and strategies for long-term development. Africa must define and own its development agenda. At an individual and on a collective level, African countries must take bold economic transformation actions driven by massive industrialization to tackle youth unemployment, poverty, and gender disparities.

We will not retreat into financial protectionism, particularly measures that constrain worldwide capital flows, especially to developing countries. We will notify promptly the WTO of any relevant trade measures. We remain committed to further trade liberalization. We are determined to seek an ambitious and balanced conclusion to the Doha Development Round in , consistent with its mandate, based on the progress already made, including with regard to modalities.

We understand the need for countries to directly engage with each other, within the WTO bearing in mind the centrality of the multilateral process, in order to evaluate and close the remaining gaps. We note that in order to conclude the negotiations in , closing those gaps should proceed as quickly as possible. We ask our ministers to take stock of the situation no later than early , taking into account the results of the work program agreed to in Geneva following the Delhi Ministerial, and seek progress on Agriculture, Non-Agricultural Market Access, as well as Services, Rules, Trade Facilitation and all other remaining issues.

We will remain engaged and review the progress of the negotiations at our next meeting. The Path from Pittsburgh Today, we designated the G as the premier forum for our international economic cooperation. We have asked our representatives to report back at the next meeting with recommendations on how to maximize the effectiveness of our cooperation. We expect to meet annually thereafter, and will meet in France in Core Values for Sustainable Economic Activity1.

The economic crisis demonstrates the importance of ushering in a new era of sustainable global economic activity grounded in responsibility. The current crisis has once again confirmed the fundamental recognition that our growth and prosperity are interconnected, and that no region of the globe can wall itself off in a globalized world economy. We, the Leaders of the countries gathered for the Pittsburgh Summit, recognize that concerted action is needed to help our economies get back to stable ground and prosper tomorrow.

We commit to taking responsible actions to ensure that every stakeholder — consumers, workers, investors, entrepreneurs — can participate in a balanced, equitable, and inclusive global economy. We share the overarching goal to promote a broader prosperity for our people through balanced growth within and across nations; through coherent economic, social, and environmental strategies; and through robust financial systems and effective international collaboration. We also agree that certain key principles are fundamental, and in this spirit we commit to respect the following core values: We also have a responsibility to achieve the internationally agreed development goals.

Our countries have a shared responsibility to adopt policies to achieve strong, sustainable and balanced growth, to promote a resilient international financial system, and to reap the benefits of an open global economy.

To this end, we recognize that our strategies will vary across countries. We recognize that the process to ensure more balanced global growth must be undertaken in an orderly manner. All G members agree to address the respective weaknesses of their economies.

According to national circumstances this could include increasing investment, reducing financial markets distortions, boosting productivity in service sectors, improving social safety nets, and lifting constraints on demand growth.

Each G member bears primary responsibility for the sound management of its economy. The G members also have a responsibility to the community of nations to assure the overall health of the global economy. Regular consultations, strengthened cooperation on macroeconomic policies, the exchange of experiences on structural policies, and ongoing assessment can strengthen our cooperation and promote the adoption of sound policies. As part of our process of mutual assessment: We call on our Finance Ministers to develop our process of mutual assessment to evaluate the collective implications of national policies for the world economy.

Westminster City Council, together with its partners Transport for London, the New West End Company , and key stakeholder - The Crown Estate, are embarking on a series of pedestrian improvements to Oxford Circus to enhance the public realm and ease the problem of overcrowding The improvements include: The provision of diagonal pedestrian crossings; Extending pavement widths to reduce congestion and give pedestrians more space to move; Removal of street clutter; The removal of the underground public toilets and the possible provision of accessible replacement facilities nearby; Resurfacing footways with high quality granite and York-stone paving.

Works to implement the scheme are scheduled to take place from April through to November and are expected to cause some localised disruption. These improvements will be implemented in a series of phases, and will involve work on Oxford Circus, Princes Street, Little Argyll Street, John Princes Street, and Great Castle Street Please see a map and a video animation illustrating the phasing of the works.

The City Council is working closely with its partners, including Transport for London, to ensure that there is as little disruption as possible. Oxford Circus will remain open to traffic throughout the works, and the Underground Station will also continue to operate.

The site office and works compound will be located in Princes Street for the duration of the project. Once works are completed, this area will become a new pedestrian space and vehicular access between Regent Street and Princes Street will not be restored. For further information please contact the West End Team at orbactionplan westminster.

I came to Pittsburgh to secure a real commitment from the G20 to a sustainable, ethical and balanced global economy. These values must guide our future decisions as the G20 becomes the central global economic policy forum. The G20 has shown its worth by helping to avoid an economic meltdown. But we are not yet out of the crisis, with far too many people still losing their jobs.

This is no time for complacency or a return to business as usual. It is time for delivery and a new global order reflecting the reality of economic interdependence.

I believe we have established the foundations for global rules which will allow the world to prosper through open markets and resist the temptation of protectionism. We have the right basis also to support the developing world and in particular to achieve the Millennium Development Goals.

We have agreed to tighter coordination of our main economic policies. The G20 is the right place to drive the global recovery forward and deliver a coherent exit strategy. We need modern international financial institutions that can deliver and push through the implementation of our commitments. We have agreed to rein in exorbitant bonuses and hold international finance to account. Financial markets must concentrate on ethical long-term investment not reckless short-term gambling.

Europe is leading the way and is offering a model of financial supervision and smart regulation which can inspire others. But we will only achieve a full and sustainable recovery if we also tackle climate change and kick-start trade. This is a test of credibility for the G20 — failure is not an option. I do not hide my concern at the slow rate of progress. Negotiations cannot be an open ended process. The next G20 must be able to look back at a successful Copenhagen Conference and look forward to the positive impact of a trade and development deal.

He looks great after more than six years of trying to get help without success! I read about Stephano in the Guardian and met him last May and was moved to act.

Thanks to the many in Dar es Salaam and Toronto who helped We can help free of charge! Many thanks to you all! Saturday, 26 September Polite applause followed the opening remarks of U. Libyan leader Moammar Gadhafi, in his first U. Gadhafi sat in a seventh-row aisle seat, off the left side. Dressed in flowing brown and tan Bedouin robes, and a black beret that he self-consciously patted at times, he listened through a translation earpiece in his right ear and fiddled with the cord in his left hand.

Occasionally he looked around the room. Aides huddled around him; he kept his glasses, a red handkerchief and a rumpled yellow folder in front of him on the desk. Then he removed his earpiece to jot a note to himself and put it into the yellow folder.

He joined the applause at one point. Then he flipped through the handwritten pages of flowing rows of bold Arabic characters inside the folders. Everyone tried to see him.

Gadhafi joined in the light applause that greeted Obama, then listened raptly with the earpiece held to his left ear. From his fifth-row aisle seat near the chamber's center, Iranian President Mahmoud Ahmadinejad also listened to Obama, but without an earpiece. The Iranian leader seemed relaxed. Ahmadinejad kept regularly checking the watch on his left wrist while peering at Obama.

Ambassador Mohammad Khazee each listened with earpieces. As Obama gestured and read from the TelePrompTer, speaking of the dangers of nuclear proliferation, the Iranians listened intently.

Ahmadinejad leaned to his right and said something to Mottaki. Ahmadinejad and Gadhafi both refrained from joining applause for Obama's comments on Sudan, the Middle East and other U. But Gadhafi joined in clapping when Obama ended his speech. Obama didn't get a standing ovation, but he got warm applause. Many of the delegates in the room abruptly left moments after Obama spoke. That included the entire U. It wasn't clear if this was a protest or if they were merely following Obama from the room.

After Gadhafi was introduced as the "king of kings" by his fellow Libyan, Treki, he remained in his seat for at least five minutes. Gadhafi was supposed to be in a holding area off the stage. He took no notice of protocol. Gadhafi was surrounded by aides and confusion seemed to take over.

Half the seats emptied as delegates wandered the aisles without any direction from Treki or Ban. Gadhafi kept shaking hands as delegates left. Treki finally tried to gavel the place to order. Gadhafi paid no attention, putting the red handkerchief to his mouth.

He leaned back in his chair, seeming to have not a care in the world, and received advice from aides. He smiled broadly, enjoying the moment - the world waiting to hear from him. Finally, Gadhafi rose, swept his robes over him and strode to the stage. He needed the handrail on his way up. He laid the shabby yellow folder on the podium, and pulled out some of the handwritten pages. There was scattered applause. By then the chamber was half-empty.

Gadhafi, in his first speech to the U. He wore big, shiny rings on each hand. For a moment, it seemed as if he were lost in thought.

He stopped and sorted through the pages of his yellow folder. It seemed he was winging the speech. Evidently, he had jotted a set of ideas in bold letters which he had before him on the handwritten pages. But there was no prepared text. He was not reading from the TelePrompTer. As he gestured, a black pin in the shape of Africa, with a white outline, reflected light from his right chest where it was attached to his robe.

He began railing against the U. He called the General Assembly "the parliament of the world" - a body that should be dictating decisions to the Security Council. At one point he called the General Assembly "the master of the world Charter book when he was done with it. Delegates began walking out at that point. People's faces registered amazement and disbelief. Others laughed or smiled, perhaps in embarrassment or not knowing how to respond. Many spoke among themselves.

By now at least half the assembly - that he called the supreme leader of the world - was deserting Gadhafi. And he was simply emptying his mind, without the least self-consciousness, before a gathering of world leaders. In place of the sea of business suits were dozens of empty blue and beige seats. People kept wandering out as Gadhafi spoke of "feudalism. At that, another wave of delegates dashed out. Gadhafi failed to note that his nation now held a Security Council seat.

And with Treki chairing the assembly, there was no stopping Gadhafi, also the head of the African Union, as he railed against what the U. Gadhafi then demanded a permanent AU seat on the Security Council. Even Ahmadinejad had left by now. When he suggested Obama stay on as leader indefinitely, there was scattered applause. He kept holding up the handwritten pages in front of him, at one point reading from it in his diatribe against the U. He also railed against former President George W.

Bush's policy of trying to build democracy in Iraq. Then Gadhafi got more personal. It was tantalizingly unclear where he was going with this. We should thank America, and we thank America. We want to make America secure," he said, talking about whether the U. He seemed to be referring, but did not directly mention, his struggle to pitch a Bedouin tent, as is his practice when he travels, in the New York area.

There also was no mention of his ill will toward Switzerland because of his son's arrest there. This place is targeted by terrorists. Kennedy, Martin Luther King and others that he saw as unsolved murders and conspiracies. We cannot keep quiet. We cannot keep silent," he intoned, shaking and peering down at the handwritten pages. However, the greater automation and digitization, higher technology and greater connectedness will drive new approaches and innovative business models which must focus on sustainable and efficient use of limited resources and the cost-effective production of user-driven products.

While industrialization largely focuses on manufacturing, the role of the services sector and capacities and capabilities in supporting the manufacturing process are important components of economic development. B esides the fact that services such as ICT and transportation are essential for trade, services can contribute to firms becoming more productive.

For example, through the use of services e. There is, therefore, a call on governments, development finance institutions, international cooperating partners and private sector small, medium and large companies, and financiers to recognise the challenges and opportunities inherent in adopting Industry 4. The messages from the Esibayeni Declaration can be summarised as follows: Hard infrastructure is only as useful as the regulatory environment that surrounds it, and either permits or hampers its utilization.

Large companies and SMEs from all sectors demand policy certainty regarding the use of tariffs, fees and levies at borders; mining houses and agro-processors called for stable and predictable export regimes, and infrastructure developers and agro-enterprises raised the need for consistent and transparent land use rights. Prioritization should take into account geographical links, opportunities for incremental implementation to allow for short-term gains, and industry-specific requirements to support priority value chains.

Conventional policy approaches are not always appropriate for rapidly changing conditions. Regional protocols, strategies and plans must be implemented at domestic level, subject to the sensitivity to the changing socio-political, economic and technological environments. Sharing of experiences and good practices among all stakeholders for integrating these concepts throughout the project cycle is encouraged. A dearth of information discourages particularly micro, small and medium enterprises MSMEs from participation in regional and global value chains.

Commercial farms increase their production and diversification is achieved downstream of the value chain processing. With the demand for higher skilled jobs, there are greater possibilities of skills mismatch. Increased urbanisation will also lead to greater levels of inequality. There is a growing trend towards a declining interest in farming which will lead to: The uncertainty within the mining industry has undermined any progress experienced towards the end of the severe slump in commodities.

Perceived small gains in the sector since early are under threat particularly in South Africa where policies have not sufficiently addressed the lingering uncertainties within the mining sector. The industry is far more nationally focused than regionally focused. Thus, there is a lack of clarity about the Member States that specialize in particular resources. Furthermore, this information is not easily accessible even to the miners.

The economic uncertainty of the sector, and the changing policies and regulations make it hard to forecast the future of mining. This will enhance the sector productivity and growth. Existing regional initiatives and efforts already underway to implement the Pharmaceuticals Business Plan have been commended by the private sector.

This study is aimed at key action-oriented steps to support the development of industrialization in pharmaceuticals in the region. Use of the resource is encouraged. A number of challenges to industrialization of the health and pharmaceuticals sector were identified, including: Call from Private Sector. Partnerships, negotiations and stakeholder involvement in the development of regional infrastructure are essential and should be emphasised.

Gas infrastructure development has to prioritised especially in east and west coasts of Southern Africa and gas market is growing but there is a need to build gas pipelines and to establish gas utilities for distribution. Fuel cells should be promoted as alternative form of energy especially for health centres, remote schools and mining operations.


Lebogang Chaka 1 year ago.

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The IMF estimates that only with such adjustments and realignments, will global growth reach a strong, sustainable, and balanced pattern.

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