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Women’s Contribution to Classical Islamic Civilisation: Science, Medicine and Politics

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Labana of Cordoba Spain, ca. She was said to be well-versed in the exact sciences, and could solve the most complex geometrical and algebraic problems known in her time. Her vast acquaintance with general literature obtained her the important employment of private secretary to the Umayyad Caliph of Islamic Spain, al-Hakam II.

Little information is available about her, and we know of only one source in which she is mentioned, the famous bio-bibliographical work Al-Fihrist of Ibn al-Nadim.

Several of the experts thus named are from Harran, in Northern Mesopotamia, and probably Sabians, whilst others may be Christians, as it can be concluded from their names.

The city of Diyarbakir in southern Turkey takes its name from this tribe. She worked in the court of Sayf al-Dawla in Aleppo reigned from to , and she was the pupil of a certain Bitolus, who taught her the secrets of the profession. Her father, and several scholars mentioned by Ibn al-Nadim, were apprentices to the same master, who seems to have been a famous astrolabe-maker. We do not know where she was born nor if she learned instrument making in Aleppo or elsewhere.

Among the few extant Islamic astrolabes, none bears her name, and as far as the available classical sources can allow us to judge, she is the only woman mentioned in connection with instrument making or engineering work. Muslim women have played a major role in promoting civilization and science in the Islamic world.

Some have built schools, mosques and hospitals. The following are some examples of these women and their crucial impact on Islamic civilization. She was a noblewoman of great generosity and munificence. She the developed many buildings in different cities.

She was known to have embarked upon a gigantic project to build service stations with water wells all along the Pilgrimage route from Baghdad to Mecca. The famous Zubaida water spring in the outskirts of Mecca still carries her name. She was also a patron of the arts and poetry [20]. Fatima al-Fehri has played a great role in the civilization and culture in her community. She grew up with her sister in an educated family and learnt Fiqh and Hadith. Fatima inherited a considerable amount of money from her father which she used to build a mosque for her community.

Established in the year , the Qarawiyin mosque had the oldest, and possibly the first university in the world. Students traveled there from all over the world to study Islamic studies, astronomy, languages, and sciences. Arabic numbers became known and used in Europe through this university.

This is one important example of the role of women in the advancement of education and civilization [21]. She was born in Aleppo in CE. She was married to king al-Zahir the son of Salah al-Din. Her son was King Abdul-Aziz. During her 6-year rule, she faced threats from Mongols, Seljuks, Crusaders and Khuarzmein. Dhayfa was a popular queen; she removed injustices and unfair taxes throughout Aleppo.

She favored the poor and scientists and founded many charities to support them. Dhayfa was a prominent architectural patron. She established large endowments for the maintenance and operation of her charitable foundations [22].

Front cover of Al-Muhaddithat: This book is an adaptation of the Muqaddimah or Preface to M. The huge body of information reviewed in Al-Muhaddithat is essential to understanding the role of women in Islamic society, their past achievements and future potential.

In addition to her political and social roles, Dhayfa sponsored learning in Aleppo where she founded two schools.

Al-Firdaous School was located close to Bab al-Makam in Aleppo and had a teacher, an Imam and twenty scholars, according to the structure of the educational system at that time. Its campus consisted of several buildings, including the school, a residential hall for students and a mosque.

The second school, the Khankah School, specialized in both Sharia and other fields. It was located in Mahalat al-Frafera. Dhayfa died in at the age 59 and was buried in the Aleppo citadel [23].

Hürrem Sultan, also called Roxelana, was born in year to an Ukrainian father. She was enslaved during the Crimean Turks raids on Ukraine during the reign of Yavuz Sultan Selim, and presented to the Ottoman palace.

She was the most beloved concubine of Süleyman the Magnificent and became his wife. During her lifetime, Hürrem Sultan was concerned with charitable works and founded a number of institutions.

These include a mosque complex in Istanbul and the Haseki Külliye complex, which consists of a mosque, medrese, school and imaret public kitchen. She also built four schools in Mecca and a mosque in Jerusalem. Hürrem Sultan died in April and lies buried in the graveyard of the Süleymaniye Mosque [24].

In addition to the roles played by women in Islamic history, as surveyed in the previous sections, we can not finish this introductory article without pointing out the role of some Muslim women as rulers and political leaders in various regions and phases of Islamic civilisation.

We have already referred to Queen Dhayfa Khatun and Princess Hurrem Sultan as patrons of great buildings and institutions in the previous section. In the following, we refer to a few outstanding women in management and governance.

In Muslim civilisation, no woman who had held power had borne the title of caliph or imam. Caliph has been a title exclusively reserved to a minority of men.

However, although no woman ever became a caliph, as such, there have been women who became Sultanas and Malikas queens. Sitt al-Mulk, the Fatimid Princess in Egypt, was one of them. Intelligent and careful enough not to violate any of the rules and requirements that govern politics in the Islamic society, and while she carried out virtually all the functions of caliph, she directed the affairs of the empire quite effectively as Regent for her nephew who was too young to rule for few years Sitt al-Mulk — , was the elder sister of Caliph Al-Hakim.

After the death of her father Al-Aziz , she tried with the help of a cousin to force her brother from the throne, and she became Regent for his son and successor Al-Zahir. She continued to wield influence as an advisor after he came of age, as evidenced by the very generous apanages that came her way.

After the assumption of power, she abolished many of the strange rules that Al-Hakim had promulgated in his reign, and worked to reduce tensions with the Byzantine Empire over the control of Aleppo, but before negotiations could be completed she died on 5 February at the age of fifty-two.

She was the widow of the Ayyubid Sultan as-Salih Ayyub who played a crucial role after his death during the Seventh Crusade against Egypt She was regarded by Muslim historians and chroniclers of the Mamluk time as being of Turkic origin. She became the Sultana of Egypt on May 2, , marking the end of the Ayyubid reign and the starting of the Mamluk era. She died in Cairo in In the course of her life and political career, Shajarat al-Durr, played many roles and held great influence within the court system that she inhabited.

She was a military leader, a mother, and a sultana at various points throughout her career with great success until her fall from power in Her political importance comes from the period in which she reigned, which included many important events in Egyptian and Middle Eastern history. The Egyptian sultanate shifted from the Ayyubids to the Mamluks in the s.

In the midst of this hectic environment, Shajarat al-Durr rose to pre-eminence, reestablished political stability and held on to political power for seven years in one form or another [25]. On the other extremity of the Muslim world and almost in the same time as Shajarat al-Durr, another woman held power, but this time in India.

She was the only woman ever to sit on the throne of Delhi. Contrary to custom, her father selected her, over her brothers, to be his successor.

She established peace and order, encouraged trade, built roads, planted trees, dug wells, supported poets, painters, and musicians, constructed schools and libraries, appeared in public without the veil, wore tunic and headdress of a man. State meetings were often open to the people.

Yet, she made enemies when she tried to eliminate some of the discriminations against her Hindu subjects. Jealous of her attention to one of her advisors, Jamal Uddin Yaqut not of Turkish blood , her governor, Altunia, rebelled. One of her brothers claimed the throne for himself, Razia and her new husband were defeated in battle where both died [26]. Dar Ibn Hazm, H. Firishta, a 16th-century historian of Muslim rule in India, wrote about her: In the time of her father, she entered deeply into the affairs of government, which disposition he encouraged, finding she had a remarkable talent in politics.

He once appointed her regent the one in control in his absence. In Muslim Africa, several women excelled in various fields. Among them, Queen Amina of Zaria She was the eldest daughter of Bakwa Turunku, who founded the Zazzau Kingdom in Amina came to power between and Amina is generally remembered for her fierce military exploits.

Of special quality is her brilliant military strategy and in particular engineering skills in erecting great walled camps during her various campaigns.

She is generally credited with the building of the famous Zaria wall. She was probably his granddaughter. Zazzua was one of a number of Hausa city-states which dominated the trans-Saharan trade after the collapse of the Songhai empire to the west.

Its wealth was due to trade of mainly leather goods, cloth, kola, salt, horses and imported metals. At the age of sixteen, Amina became the heir apparent Magajiya to her mother, Bakwa of Turunku, the ruling queen of Zazzua. With the title came the responsibility for a ward in the city and daily councils with other officials.

Queen Bakwa died around and the reign of Zazzua passed to her younger brother Karama. At this time Amina emerged as the leading warrior of Zazzua cavalry. Her military achievements brought her great wealth and power.

When Karama died after a ten-year rule, Amina became queen of Zazzua. She set off on her first military expedition three months after coming to power and continued fighting until her death. In her thirty-four year reign, she expanded the domain of Zazzua to its largest size ever.

Her main focus, however, was not on annexation of neighbouring lands, but on forcing local rulers to accept vassal status and permit Hausa traders safe passage.

She is credited with popularizing the earthen city wall fortifications, which became characteristic of Hausa city-states since then. She ordered building of a defensive wall around each military camp that she established. Later, towns grew within these protective walls, many of which are still in existence.

We finish this section with a note on Ottoman women, a field of investigation that began to attract the attention of scholars. In the 16 th and 17 th century, harems played an important role in the government of the Ottoman Empire [29]. Unlike the common perception, the Harem was an administrative centre of government, run by women only [30]. This is a field of research in which a systematic investigation will be rewarded by great results.

In addition to the specialties and social roles mentioned above, other fields knew the contribution of Muslim women. Two examples show how much a serious investigation will progress our knowledge of their contribution. In chemistry, historical sources quote the name of Maryam Al-Zinyani. In addition to writing poetry, Maryam was skilled in chemistry [31]. Muslim women participated with men in constructing Islamic culture and civilization, excelling in poetry, literature and the arts.

In addition, Muslim women have demonstrated tangible contributions in mathematics, astronomy, medicine and in the profession of health care. However, the study of the role of Muslim women in the advancement of science, technology and medicine is difficult to document as there are only scant mentions of it. Only about 50, of them are edited and most of these are not about science. Editing relevant manuscripts is indeed a strategic issue for discovering the role of Muslim women in science and civilization.

This work would have not been completed without the assistance of a number of colleagues, amongst whom I particularly like to thank Prof. Whitfield, The Beauty of Reasoning: A woman before her time , The Woman Astronomer , 11 November accessed Ancient Egypt in Medieval Arabic Writings. Suad Joseph, 6 vols.

See an online preview here. See also Sabiha Gokcen , Pioneer Aviatrix. Interface Publications, hardcover and paperback. One of those talks was given in New York. A follow-up article , done after an interview with the author in Oxford, was published in the London Times , 14 April For another article, also after an interview with Akram Nadwi, this one in Arabic, go here.

Read also a PDF file 17 pp. Longman Group, , p. The Journal of Nursing Scholarship , 28 3 , ; G. Healing, Nursing and the Spiritual Dimension. Dar Ibn Khazima, H, p. Happiness Press, , vol. To read this section online: Lippincott Company, , vol. Global Vision Publishing, , vol. Hawwa Brill , vol. Solipsist Press, [accessed Instead of assuming that her assistant would know to put a portfolio review together ahead of a meeting with a client, she now takes time to lay out her daily expectations for her staff.

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And to pay Russia to fly our astronauts and cargo should have been seen as unacceptable. We have lost our only manned spacecraft not counting the one being tested by the military and our dreams of traveling to distant worlds has our collective spirits crushed.

Now, as if to prove my point that we have no alternatives, they are selling off the remaining shuttle engines, all the boosters are going back to pushing nukes and the land once used by the shuttle is idle.

The only thing taking off or landing are birds! They could at the very least return the land to its original state, creating some new habitats for wildlife. But coordinated car bombings and attacks on civilians and security forces are a favorite tactic of the Iraqi branch of al-Qaida. It typically does not lay claim to attacks for several days, if at all.

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You whack candidates off the ballot. You carefully trim the field to five nut jobs and one less nutty guy. You restrict access to social media and the internet.

You arrest every high profile dissident. I tell you, these guys could give Tammany Hall or a Chicago ward boss a serious run for the money. Khamenei has managed become a modern-day Boss Tweed.

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Much of the country still denies this fundamental right. We may well need another Supreme Court decision acknowledging that states should honor marriages performed in other states. But today was a day in which America took a step forward and lived a little more up to our ideals.

The Defense of Marriage Act was a vicious and discriminatory piece of waste and our union is a little more perfect without it.

There were other well-wishers outside his Johannesburg home. Macroeconomics fiscal and monetary policy matters, but so does microeconomics. Looks like you have a mental problem with your ego and schizophrenia.

I was in the union for thirty years and yes our union is concerned about the same thing. These are conversations that need to be had early and often. Instead, police cut a large hole in a stretch of fence behind the school and led children down an embankment. There they were placed on school buses, accounted for, and later reunited with their families at a nearby Walmart.

We seek out the perfect recipe and take our time, lovingly preparing our dinner from scratch. It will be part of our investigation. But providing arms alone is not sufficient.

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Sixty years after Turing's death, when our mobile phone has times the speed and memory capacity of the Atlas computer, she has not yet been proved wrong and personally, I'm with Lovelace. Only verylarge physical operating companies and traders have the time andmoney to deal with such a complex regulatory environment. He scored when Ike Davis grounded into a double play.

Despite its many flaws and difficulties, the Gaokao gives all bright teenagers the opportunity to become engineers or surgeons. No matter if they are poor or rich, if they come from the city or the countryside, if the students pass this exam they can become what they want. That would have helped them avoid submitting a statement with lots of grammatical mistakes or that used phrases that only speakers from their native country would understand.

But when it comes to the public finances, politicians are blaming companies again? What a different recession it would have been had the US and other major governments built a tidy sovereign wealth fund before It, like the U. But not even a nice ring could keep the two together.

Brand filed for divorce on Dec. And students can still take advantage of existing federal repayment and debt management initiatives, such as the generous income-based repayment programs, loan forgiveness programs and opportunities for deferment or forbearance. His Weineresque pitch now is that he has learned from his errors, etc. Students are given opportunities and equal access to quality education.

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And the stock market will help, too: With any luck, corporate growth will mean employment growth. In the same period, the benchmark Mervalstock exchange has surged 36 percent, touching a recordyesterday.

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On June 3, the court ruled that law enforcement could take DNA swabs of anyone who has been arrested, a decision that could open the door for the creation of a national DNA criminal database.

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On an average day, women do three times as much housework as men do and more than twice the amount of food preparation and cleaning. Men do lead women in one area of home improvement: Men spend an average of 15 minutes per day on this, while women do roughly half that. We can find common ground to help our students and ensure the next generations of Americans have the same wonderful educational opportunities that we have always had.

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Bollinger was the last supreme court case to address the issue of affirmative action. That suit was filed against the University of Michigan Law School for assigning points to different race categories in its admission scoring.

International development is not only one of those great areas of achievement for the last Labour government but Ed is absolutely determined that it is going to be one of the most important roles of the next Labour government.

We would see that as a massively important job. Ruby would have been proud. It makes you think what it would be like to be in such a scenario. The hope of continuance. However, cars provided by an employer that are available for employee use are a benefit in kind for the employee and are taxable.

These rules have been in place for 37 years. The Capitol was locked down for about an hour during the incident. He also had a chance to drive in the go-ahead run with two out in the 11th but grounded out with a runner on third. Then, he was replaced in the field in the bottom half. Simply put, there cannot be exports without imports.

This could come from a German economy prepared to reduce its formidable trade surplus, from easier European monetary policies that spur growth and competitiveness, or from increased deployment of central funds such as those of the European Investment Bank or perhaps other sources. The crucial point is that no strategy for debt repayment can succeed without providing for an increase in the demand for the exports of debtor countries.

We turned our home into a Wiffle house. Or, waiting expectantly as a lioness approaches to rub faces with him, in that wonderful tactile way lions greet each other? Or, closing his eyes in paternal indulgence, while his small cubs clamber over his hindquarters and pounce on the tassel of his tail, as his upper lip twitches into a gentle sneer? Lee put out fires and helped passengers to safety not discovering until much later that she had a broken tailbone, she told the AP. News that the actor had checked into rehab and was no longer missing.

Earlier in May the year-old actor caused alarm among friends and family after disappearing, prompting his wife to file a missing persons report with the Los Angeles Police Department. That means that college will be put further out of reach for millions of students and middle-class families. Now is not the time to make school more expensive for our young people. That path does NOT lead to prosperity and a productive, modern Egypt showing other Arab states how a better future can be possible.

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It is also a way to reach lower-risk borrowers and get them rates reflecting their creditworthiness - an option the CFPB report says is lacking in the current marketplace. While on their journey, a car hastily pulled over and a man got out screaming for help for his son, who was having a seizure and choking, according to the report. FederalReserve more cautious about drawing down its huge economicstimulus programme.

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Bush, and Vice President Dick Cheney. Rising electricity costs and plummeting commodity prices with the onset of the global financial crisis imposed further losses. The couple are in the middle of a divorce. Many birds find mosquito's to be a tasty snack.

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We were there for the train fire. As for the inspection of the train after the fact, that was up to them. He displayed disciplined route running and timing on the catches, but could not adjust to a ball thrown behind him by rookie quarterback Geno Smith. It laggedbehind peers in jumping on new trends in television and bundledservices to limit the damage from free services such as Skype.

The panel would also make recommendations on a measure to fund the government for the fiscal year, ending the shutdown.

They were driven by personal ethics, rather than the structure and incentives of their firms. Consider the impact of seat belt laws on accident-related fatalities or smoking bans on tobacco addiction. Regional powers will have to manage these problems on their own. The bad will remain bad. Activists for women's rights have become more vocal, focusing on practical campaigns such as the right to drive. Social media users are also testing the limits of freedom of expression. They said that they were doing their best with the limited resources they had, pointing to problems of access and communication.

It marked the first time she was here without Venus, without her father, Richard, and without her mother, Oracene. She was asked about that, whether that was a problem. Going back to Airbnb, one of the interesting things is the billion dollars that is going to get spent by guests in New York City this year renting places on Airbnb is going to go into the local economy because all of those hosts are real people.

In the end, a resolution will either be passed under Chapter VII and contain language allowing the use of armed force, or it will not. The first possibility is unacceptable to Russia and China; the second would not satisfy the Western powers. There is no room for compromise on this vital question. That could be the rock which sinks the Russian plan for Syria to yield its chemical weapons. This includes pre-trade risk controls, post-trade reports and other post trade measures, system safeguards related to the design, testing and supervision of automated trading systems, and additional protections designed to promote safe and orderly markets.

The market will shrink until, it said. The slumping popularity of the devices is comingas consumers increasingly turn to smartphones and tablets, twomarkets where Microsoft and the PC industry have lagged. A former Fernandez ally and fellow member of the umbrella Peronist party, Massa is seen as a possible business-friendly presidential candidate two years from now. Sinopec does not expect any substantial demand recovery for petrochemicals this year in China. For adults, one of the most irksome things about the mushroom-dwelling citizens of Smurf Village remains their habit of replacing words with their name.

Snowden knew if the U. His only other choice was to flee. He asked Ho to make a direct appeal to the Hong Kong government. Would Hong Kong welcome him if he chose to stay or not? Check out these famous actors and a NBC reports the department has not yet decided whether it will charge Cartwright. But Internal Revenue Code Section applies to all corporations. Spike Lee famously urged school children to cut class and see his film instead, saying it provided just as much education as a classroom.

Patient safety is our highest priority and we are working through the night to resolve this issue as quickly as possible. It is also consistent with what the U. The Players Association formally filed an appeal Wednesday. Twelve other players linked to the case accepted game bans without contesting. His claim that the badger population was much smaller than previously thought comes just a year after he postponed the badger cull by around nine months to this summer after finding badger numbers were higher than expected.

All you have to do is let a navigation device, smartphone or in-dash system share your location and speed. Since Congress was unable to reach agreement on holding Stafford rates at 3. Safely enjoy or a least try hot weather workouts with the tips below: But the Obamacare health insurance exchanges are still very much on track to open October 1.

With less than days to go, hospitals across the country are scurrying to prepare. Pastor Glenn Kirby said the surviving students would now be returning home to China. In fact, if McLeland ends up having one of them as a client, he asks what chapter most interests them as a way of starting a dialogue.

The names of the Americans were withheld pending notification of next-of-kin. Ellis was arrested in Ontario, Canada. In the latest survey, by the Washington Post and ABC News, 70 percent disapproved of the way Republicans in Congress are handling the conflict versus 61 percent who disapproved of congressional Democrats.

In private testimony to the committee, she complained about oversight from Washington. It is thought that the fungus has been present in Europe for a long time and European bats have developed resilience to it.

The fungus was most likely introduced to North America from this side of the Atlantic, hence the dramatic effect it is having on bat populations there, as they have no immunity to the disease. In , pensions in aggregate had enough assets to cover 73 percent of their liabilities. Opponents say the heights are too strategically important to be returned. An opinion poll in January suggested that a majority of Israelis opposed plans to hand back the Golan to Syria. I think it would be politically sensible for her to take that approach and I think she is taking that approach.

He has frequently spoken out in recent weeks about the need for comprehensive immigration reform, urging his GOP colleagues in the House to act on a bill that was passed overwhelmingly by the Senate. They are not where they need to be with the Hispanic population. Their leading candidate for four years from now, Rubio, this is his signature issue. They need to give Rubio a win and they need to give themselves a win with the chances of getting back pieces of that Hispanic population.

This pop sensation admitted herself to a rehabilitation center for 24 hours after the death of her aunt in And while customers are technically supposed to track their online purchases and pay taxes on all items they buy online, few are aware of the rule or follow through on it. He had surgery April 23 to repair a herniated disk.

He underwent a second operation May 1. He was playing catch from flat ground as of mid-June and as of July 9 has started to play catch off a mound. The contract follows a joint studyby the two firms. An Indian Earth Lodge fact page. The Rebels of Lost Canyon, art by Alberto Giolitti; Chief Stone Bear says the days of counting scalps has passed, but some young hotbloods of the tribe will make their own war camp.

The Indian Posse, art by Alberto Giolitti; Ace and his gang have taken over the town by stuffing the ballot box with phony names.

From a real economy standpoint, what it says is the Fed is actually more nervous about the economy than is generally perceived. The targets were based on the team finishing third in the English Premier League and reaching the quarter-finals of the Champions League and domestic cups.

The White House announced earlier this week that Obama was canceling visits to Malaysia and the Philippines that were scheduled to take place after the summits, because of the shutdown. No further information will be released until the next of kin have been informed. Advanced economies are recovering and emerging markets, economies, are slowing down, and we are putting our emphasis on trying to help each country, each part of the global economy, get going again.

But the most important challenge for us is to help countries get going again and also reform the financial systems so that the kind of events that we saw before can never recur. However this is not thought to happen thanks to the HD graphics.

There was another rumour going around that the game would appear on the next gen consoles, which would include the new Wii U. Hetold us to follow Nicolas, so that is what I will do. Voters in Colorado and Washington legalized the adult use of recreational marijuana in Grindrod, then president of MMA, wrote in a January letterto employees. Burkhardt and I both want you to know thatthe salary reductions and other steps outlined above will beremoved as soon as traffic levels return to more normal levels.

The sources also say Carlos Ruiz can be had before the deadline, too. Authorities said more than 6, people had been evacuated by Wednesday night. Is this a sincere coalition with a central purpose or 2 independent bodies in one house?

The real issue today is to find someone with the means to develop sound industrial projects, otherwise we are finished. Tensions over the East China Sea have escalated this year, with Beijing and Tokyo scrambling fighter jets and ordering patrol ships to shadow each other, raising the fear that a miscalculation could lead to a broader clash.

The train was almost certainly carrying would-be pilgrims although most usually walk to Santiago from Spain and abroad. The company, which makes compounds used in high-tech applications, did not report storing hazardous chemicals, according to Dennis Lolli, coordinator of the Winnebago County Emergency Services and Disaster Agency.

However, in April Bucharest signed the EU accession treaty, paving the way for Romania eventually to join the union in January The country appears headed for a looming funding crunch unless it can quickly access money from overseas. The local currency has lost 11 percent of its value since late last year. Celebrate the arrival of the Brooklyn Nets to the Barclay Center by owning a pic of your favorite Net. Or own a piece of Nets history with a photo of a Nets legend.

Find a photo today. That can be especially awkward. People already in poor health, including those whosmoke heavily and have chronic lung disease, are the mostvulnerable. Rohani has a law doctorate from the University of Glasgow. He accepted the suspension of uranium enrichment and the application of the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons.

For example, they are 2. Her collection is open by appointment in iris time. Anne continues to hunt for more, although only one or two a year turn up. She believes more are to be found, particularly in old French gardens. Politicians and elites in China enrich themselves, their friends, and their families by managing and siphoning China Inc.

Last year, state-owned enterprises and affiliated businesses accounted for over half of Chinese economic output and employment. There were 70 mainland Chinese companies on the Fortune Global list; 65 of those were state-owned. Olivia was going to be in 11th grade, Mills was going to be in ninth grade and Anna was going to be in sixth grade next year, he said. Many of its camps are built on private property, which has exacerbated Tamil grievances and enhanced barriers to reconciliation.

Because the fundsare not subject to annual appropriations, they will continue tobe available to states that need to pay employees andcontractors and buy equipment and supplies. Opens, failed to create a single break point opportunity in the whole match. The United States and its allies say the Damascus government used those weapons in deadly attacks outside the Syrian capital on August The more voices engaged in conversation, the better for us all, but do keep it civil.

Please refrain from profanity, obscenity, spam, name-calling or attacking others for their views. It was not clear if the men were linked to the Libyan state, which may either have sought to keep its distance or been sidelined by Washington for fear of leaks.

Skirmishes with drug smugglers crossing illegally from Afghanistan occur regularly, as Tajikistan is the first stop on the drugs route from there to Russia and the West. As much as she was brazen, there was always this vulnerability to her. You could see it in glimpses.

She never let you see it fully. But there were glimpses of that vulnerability, and of course the way she would deliver jokes. They were just brilliant. Further, the researchers found that particular types of pursuits boosted sperm counts more than others. Then again, maybe only a player so utterly unaffected by occasion could hold it together as he did in that third set against Novak Djokovic. The couple has been engaged since and welcomed a baby boy, Max, to the world in February Even Raymond Blanc thinks that, and many think he was treated unfairly in not being awarded a third star years ago.

Where research had been carried out, most of the therapies scored just one on the effectiveness scale. They have faced heavy criticism for their lifting of bright US ideas to transform emerging markets, and have tended to operate in a secretive fashion until a recent redesign of their website made their business transactions more transparent.

Prospective product announcements should not necessarily be inferred from our patents. Similarly, ask questions aimed to uncover work ethic, qualities that no degree can teach. Still, there are many steps we can take to significantly improve the odds that we will be able to retire well.

In fact, your chances of retiring comfortably are very good if you stay disciplined about saving and investing. Start practicing these steps now: That is where your running and your healthy diet pay off: Pending home sales hit a six-year high in May, according to the National Association of Realtors, the real estate trade association.

Its brief was to implement a peace plan outlined in a Security Council resolution. In September a UN-brokered ceasefire was declared.

I will define the situation. In recent years, though, some Israelis have been going the other direction, migrating back to Europe or to the United States. And as devices interact with other devices, change protocol or update software, new security vulnerabilities inevitably appear. Companies work hard to find these threats and snuff them out immediately, but it often takes the greater community to find them - both good guys and sometimes, unfortunately, bad guys.

The law allows the FDA to expand its authority over all tobacco products, but it must first issue new regulations. The FDA has said they are in development. Wheeler gave up a leadoff homer to Jimmy Rollins, then pitched his way into and out of jams.

Your score on the verbal section can more accurately tell you how prepared you are and therefore allow you to concentrate on studying for what you are weakest in to improve your score for the real thing.

Children ages 5 and younger were the most vulnerable. The great and the good from the worlds of sport, the arts and fashion lead the A-list crowd who turned out for the inaugural Novak Djokovic Foundation Gala Dinner on Monday night. This has not resulted in the closure of UK airspace or the suspension of all flights in or out the UK.

Egypt postal code

The fundamental work in the field, was Dioscorides, De materia medica ed. The postal codes for Al- Monufla are:

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Wegen der Wirtschaftskrise gerieten auch die griechisch-deutschen Beziehungen in ein unruhiges Fahrwasser. Ich werde also mit vielen neuen Erfahrungen.

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